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Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

Grade, Teacher, Year

Prof. Heinrich, 2018

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1.The young man is advised to forsake the way of evil-doing:

“The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction“ (1.7); “Be not wise in your own eyes; fear the LORD, and turn away from evil” (3:7); “The fear of the LORD is hatred of evil. Pride and arrogance and the way of evil and perverted speech I hate.” (8:13)

2. The way of wisdom, i.e. of doing good, is the way that brings well-being:

“Riches and honor are with me, enduring wealth and righteousness. My fruit is better than gold, even fine gold, and my yield than choice silver.” (8:18-19) “Long life is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to those who lay hold of her; those who hold her fast are called blessed.” (Prov. 3:16-18)

3. The way of folly leads to destruction:

“The woman folly is loud; she is seductive and knows nothing. She sits at the door of her house; she takes a seat on the highest places of the town, calling to those who pass by, who are going straight on their way, ‘Whoever is simple, let him turn in here!’ And to him who lacks sense she says, ‘Stolen water is sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant.’ But he does not know that the dead are there, that her guests are in the depths of Sheol.” (Prov. 9:13-18)

Thus, in both cases doing right is emphasized, as it leads to happiness, while the way of evil-doing is denounced as bringing destruction also on its practitioners.

It is again note-worthy, as was done above, to point out that in the Book of Proverbs as well as in Zarathustra’s vision, wisdom is somehow with God/Ahura Mazda, is an agent or aspect of Him (see, for instance Prov. 8:22, Yasna 31, Yasna 44, etc.). This, alongside with the other striking parallels stated throughout this paper, provides a strong foundation for the daring argument that there were indeed not different gods who revealed themselves through Zarathustra and the Old Testament Scriptures, but that it was indeed the very same Creator-God and that the ministry of Zarathustra was not based on charlatanry, b.....[read full text]

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Firstly, that the Kingdom of Heaven is a supra-sensible entity, or metaphysical entitiy, [JH42] akin to the Good Mind, the Spirit of Truth or any of the other hypostatic entities [JH43] mentioned by Zarathustra (see, e.g. Yasna 33: Hearken unto me, O Most Benevolent Ahura Mazda!/ O ye Spirits of Piety and Truth that bless our existence!/ O ye Good Mind, and the Dominion of Heaven!/ Be gracious unto us as we receive our recompense!).

The relationship between the Kingdom of Heaven and the entities is not entirely clear, but it is possible that these are essentially identical, or two sides of the same coin. In any case it seems to be implied that man can attain this Kingdom of Heaven by being righteous and pious. It is as a place where ‘Perfection and Immortality’ are (Yasna 45, 10) and where those that dwell there are ‘protected’ (Yasna 10). 

At the same time, the Dominion of Heaven seems to be understood as a state that can be attained here in this life[JH44] , a state of ‘blessedness’ and peace, ushered in through the hearkening to Truth and the Best Mind (see Yasna 28, 9: We shall not displease Thee, O Mazda, Or Ye, O Truth, and the Best Mind; Ye, who are the most helpful to promote the Dominion of Blessedness.)
These different nuances need not
[JH45] be contradictory, and could be summarized thus: The Kingdom of Heaven, according to Zarathustra, is a place of happiness and peace which can be attained by righteous striving and, in doing so, becomes actualized in this world.

Or, if stated the other way around, the Kingdom of Heaven is a society of peace and joy that can be attained through the striving after righteousness by a community.

If now a Zoroastrian would read the Gospels of Christ, the message he would hear when the Christ proclaims to his listeners that the ‘Kingdom of Heaven’ is at hand, he would quite possibly understand that a season of happiness and peace is at hand; based on, and this is the deciding factor for the Zoroastrian as well as for the ministry of Christ, the repentance of the people, i.e. the abandoning of their former evil ways and the adoption of his newly presented good way, most succinctly summarized in the double-command to ‘love God, and love your neighbor’ (see, e.g. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30-31; Luke 10:27).

Alternatively, the Zoroastrian might understand that the ideal realm[JH46] , the Spirit of Truth, Righteousness, etc. is at hand. This, then, would coincide with the incarnational theology most elaborately portrayed in the Gospel of John (see above, p. 8-9). The ensuing narrative he may then understand as a rejection of this way proposed by the Christ, and of his person, and hence the failure of the Israelites, the early recipients of the message of Christ, to ‘actualize’ or attain to this ‘Kingdom of Heaven’[JH47] .

In fact, instead of attaining this ideal state through the pursuit of Goodness, destruction and suffering were the result of the rejection of this way. A Zoroastrian knowledgeable about Zoroastrianism and first century Judaism might even perceive the destruction of the temple in roughly 70 AD as a more or less ‘natural’ result of the rejection of the ‘good way’, as the pursuit of evil always leads to destruction, according to the Zoroastrian un.....

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Bibliography


Azargoshasb, Mobed F. “Translation of Gathas - The Holy Songs Of Zarathushtra .” Www.Zarathushtra.com, 1980,
.

Heiler, Friedrich. Die Religionen Der Menschheit. Kurt Goldammer, 1991.

Irani, D. J. “The Gathas - Hymns of Zarathustra.” Zarathustra.com, 0AD,
[JH49] 





[1] Yasna 28, Stanzas 3 and 10; Yasna 31, Stanza 16; Yasna 33, Stanza 11; Yasna 45, Stanza 10; and Yasna 49, Stanza 10


 [JH1]…the prophetic books

 [JH2]At a certain point OR in a certain period

 [JH3]Which source? The Bible?

 [JH4]Which translation do you use for this paper? You should indicate it at least once in the beginning and then in the Works cited

 [JH5]Is this a quotation from somewhere? If yes, it would be proper to indicate from where, if not we are not to use quotation marks in academic papers to highlight certain expressions so as not to confuse the reader. If you want to just hightlight, use Kursiv

 [JH6]Not writers? If you choose to substitute this, then it would be good to replace “writings” with Scriptures

 [JH7]s.o. – besser nicht in Anführungszeichen

 [JH8]What do you mean by this? I have never heard the term “self-same fulfillment model”

 [JH9]Phew! When would that be?

And does your source cover both the dates?

 [JH10]This sentence is correct, yet a bit long and complicated. You may want to consider splitting it up

 [JH11]Who? A source .....

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 [JH32]This verb doesn’t quite fit here

 [JH33]Named/called ?

 [JH34]Very complicated sentence (not the only one on this page tbh. If you still have energy & time, splitting this up might be good, although Heinrich will be able to read it like this too. Just that in general it is better to explain complex things in non-complex sentences…

 [JH35]Even Google does not know this word. I think it must be something different

 [JH36]This formulation sounds somewhat awkward

 [JH37]Do you have a reference for this? I know for a fact that you haven’t taken Hebrew yet…

 [JH38]

 [JH39]?

 [JH40]Which perception and of what?

 [JH41]Since this has come up several times in this essay, just a short note:

than – a comparison

then – a result, conclusion

 [JH42]Hä? I’m too dumb for this

 [JH43]Same here

 [JH44]In the Gathas or in the

 [JH45]Or do not need to be

 [JH46]Realm of  the Spirit ?

 [JH47]I don’t understand this sentence

Unless the “as” is maybe supposed to be an “is”

 [JH48]I like your conclusion, it is cohesive, understandable and well done. Brings your results together in a good way

 [JH49]Is thi.....

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