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Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

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Prof. Heinrich, 2018

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Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen

Zarathustra, the Prophets, and the Christ

A Comparative Study


Table of Contents

Introduction. 1

1. Biographical Information regarding Zarathustra. 2

3. The Cosmology of Zarathustra and Fulfillment-Theology. 9

4. Zarathustra and the Prophetic Literature – Comparison. 11

6.  The Synoptic Gospels and the Message of Zarathustra. 14

7. Conclusion. 16

Bibliography. 17


Zarathustra, the Prophets, and the Christ

All biblical references taken from the ESV translation. All references to the Gathas, including the numbers indicating the stanza of the Ha, are based on the translation  by D. J. Irani (see bibliography).

Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to relate and compare the teachings of Zarathustra to the witness of the Old and New Testament, especially in reference to the center piece of Christian Theology, i.e.

Jesus, the Christ. I will first seek to outline basic themes in the teachings of Zarathustra, and then summatively bring them into dialogue with sections of the Corpus of the Old Testament Literature[JH1] , as well as the New Testament.

In order to approach this topic it is important to note that although the terms Zoroastrianism and Christianity are terms used to describe certain phenomena, the founders of the respective religion did never use these terms.

Instead, these terms are actually used in reference to these founders, in order to indicate their importance. In the case of Christianity, the term designates the centrality of Christ for the faith. In the case of Zoroastrianism, Zarathustra is the central figure, Zoroaster in Greek, and hence the name of the faith-movement derives its name from him. In its infancy, neither Christianity nor Zoroastrianism was an enclosed and static system that could be compared with one another via comparative religion, but both were rather prophetic movements in a certain point [JH2] in history, like the prophetic movements recorded in the Old Testament (Elijah, Jeremiah, etc.).

The prophets of the Old Testament, according to the Scriptural record, [JH3] spoke and acted at a certain point in history, and Christ, according to the writer of the Letter to the Hebrews (Chapter 1, Verses 1 and 2), stood in direct chronological as well as prophetic succession to them.

Christ, according to the Early Christian understanding, which is reflected for instance in the above-mentioned Letter to the Hebrews as well as in the four gospels, is the last in line of a long lineage of prophets. Qua his own words, he did not come to “destroy the law, or the prophets […] but to fulfill.” (Matthew 5:17[JH4] ), in other words, he does not act against what was spoken before, but acts in continuity with the prophets, seeking to ‘fill out’[JH5]  their ministry.

And yet the corpus of the Old Testament in which the words and deeds of the Old Prophets are recorded, is not conclusive in a certain sense. It is not, nor would it even be possible, that all history that happened during the time of the prophets was recorded, but only that pertaining to the history of Israel. The writing of History, any historical writing, is selective.

Only those aspects that an editor deems important in reference to his cause are included in the writing of the history. A comparable New Testament parallel can be found in the book of the Acts of the Apostles. It is very clear that in these short twenty-eight chapters not all events of the very early church are included, as this would not be possible. Luke, the author of the book, only included certain a.....[read full text]

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8∞ ≈∋†∞+∋††+ ≠∋≈ ∞≈∋+†∞ †+ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞ †+∞ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† ≠+;≤+ +∞, ∞;†+∞+ ⊇∞∞ †+ ⊥∞+⊥+∋⊥+;≤∋† ≤+≈≈†+∋;≈†≈ ++ †++ ≈+∋∞ +†+∞+ +∞∋≈+≈, ⊇;⊇ ≈+† +∋=∞ ∋≈+ ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞ +†. 1† ;≈ +∞†∋†;=∞†+ †∞†;†∞ †+ ≈⊥∞≤∞†∋†∞ ≠++ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ;≈ ≈+† ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈†. 3∞† ;† ;≈ ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+∋† †+;≈ ;≈ ≤+≈≈∞≤†∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥+∋⊥+;≤∋† ⊇;≈†∋≈≤∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ +;≈ ∋+∞∋ +† ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋+∞∋ †+∋† ;≈ +† ∋∋;≈ ≤+≈≤∞+≈ †++ †+∞ ∞⊇;†++≈ [186]&≈+≈⊥;+† †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† ≠+;†;≈⊥≈.

7+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+ ;≈⊇;≤∋†;+≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ≠∋≈ ∋≈+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ †+††+≠∞+≈ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +;+†;≤∋† ⊥++⊥+∞†≈ ++ ∋≈+ +†+∞+ ∋⊇+∞+∞≈†≈ †+ †+∞ 1≈+∋∞†;†∞ ≤∞††, ∋≈⊇ ∋⊥∋;≈, ;† ;≈ †∞†;†∞ +∞+∞ †+ ⊥∞∞≈≈ ≠+∞†+∞+ †+∞+∞ ≠∋≈ ∋≈+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞∋, ∞≈∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≠+;†∞+≈ +† †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈†. 3+∋† ;≈ +† ;≈†∞+∞≈† †++ †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ;≈ +∋†+∞+ ≠+∞†+∞+ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ ≈⊥;+;†∞∋† ∂;≈≈+;⊥ +∞†≠∞∞≈ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† ⊥++⊥+∞†≈, ∋≈⊇, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+, †+∞ 0++;≈†.

1≈ +†+∞+ ≠++⊇≈, ≤+∞†⊇ ;† +∞ †+∋† ++†+ ∋+∞ ∋≤†;≈⊥ +≈ +∞+∞≈† +† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ 3⊥;+;†, ∋+∞ ∋+=∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ 3+∞+≤∞, ⊥++≤†∋;∋ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋††+ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞[187]&≈+≈⊥;? 4≈⊇ ;≈ ≠+∋† +∞†∋†;+≈ ≤+∞†⊇ †+∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥≈ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ≈†∋≈⊇ ;≈ +∞†∋†;+≈ †+ 0++;≈† +;∋≈∞††? 1≈ ∋ ‘†∞††;††∋∞≈†’ ∋+⊇∞†, †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ [188]&≈+≈⊥;†∞††;††∋∞≈† ∋+⊇∞† †+∋† 0++;≈† ∋⊥⊥†;∞⊇ †+ +;∋≈∞†† ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞†≈, ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ ;≈ +∞†∋†;+≈ †+ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈ ≠∞††? 7+;≈ ≠;†† +∞ ∞≠⊥†++∞⊇ +∞†+≠ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+.

1. 3;+⊥+∋⊥+;≤∋† 1≈†++∋∋†;+≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋

3≤++†∋+≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈≤∞+†∋;≈ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞≠∋≤† †;∋∞ +† †+∞ ∋;≈;≈†++ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋, +∞† †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∞≈∋≈;∋+∞≈ ;≈ †+∞;+ +⊥;≈;+≈ †+∋† +∞ †;=∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋≤†∞⊇ ⊥+;++ †+ 0++;≈†. 3+;†∞ †+∞ ∋≈≤;∞≈† 6+∞∞∂≈ +∞†;∞=∞⊇ +;∋ †+ +∋=∞ †;=∞⊇ 6000 +∞∋+≈ ⊥+;++ †+ 0†∋†+[189]&≈+≈⊥;, †+∞ 5+++∋≈†+;∋≈≈ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ +;≈ ≠++∂ 258 +∞∋+≈ ⊥+;++ †+ 4†∞≠∋≈⊇∞+ †+∞ 6+∞∋†, ;. ∞. ∋++∞≈⊇ 600 30 (≤†.

8∞;†∞+, 267).  7+;≈ +∞†;∞†, †+∞ +∞†;∞† †+∋† +∞ †;=∞⊇ ∋++∞† 600 +∞∋+≈ +∞†++∞ †+∞ 0++;≈†, ;≈ ∋†≈+ +∞†⊇ ++ ∋∋≈+ ≈≤++†∋+≈ †+⊇∋+.
1∞≈† ∋≈ †+∞+∞ ∞≠;≈†≈ ≈+ ∋+≈+†∞†∞ ≤∞+†∋;≈†+ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ †;∋∞ +∞ †;=∞⊇, ;† ;≈ ∞⊥∞∋††+ ⊇;††;≤∞†† †+ ⊇∞†∞+∋;≈∞ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† +;≈ +;+⊥+∋⊥++. 3≤++†∋+≈ +∞†;∞=∞ †+∋† +∞ ∋+≈††+ ≠++∂∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ∞∋≈†∞+≈ ⊥∋+†≈ +† 1+∋≈, +∞† ⊇∞∞∋ ;† ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ †+∋† +∞ +≈†+ ∋++;=∞⊇ †+∞+∞ ∋††∞+ ††∞∞;≈⊥ †++∋ †+∞ ≠∞≈†∞+≈ ⊥∋+†≈ (≤†.

8∞;†∞+, 266). 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈, †+∋† ⊥∋+† +† 5+++∋≈†+;∋≈ 3≤+;⊥†∞+∞ †+∋† ≤∋≈, ≠;†+ ∋ +;⊥+ ⊇∞⊥+∞∞ +† ≤∞+†∋;≈†+, +∞ ⊇;+∞≤††+ ∋††+;+∞†∞⊇ †+ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈≤∞ ;≈ ≈+† {∞≈† ⊥∋+† +† ∋ †∋†∞+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† †+∋⊇;†;+≈ ∋††∞+ +;≈ ∋;≈;≈†++, +∞ +∋⊇ ∋ †∞∋≈† +≈∞ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+ (≤†. 5∋≈≈∋ 53), ≠+;≤+ ;∋⊥†;∞≈ †+∋† +∞ ≠∋≈ ∋†≈+ ∋∋++;∞⊇[1810]&≈+≈⊥;.

4≈ ≈∞∞⊇≈ †+ +∞ +∞∋∞∋+∞+∞⊇, ⊇∞+;≈⊥ †+∋† †;∋∞ †+∞ +=∞+∋†† ⊥∋≤∞ +† †;=;≈⊥ ≠∋≈ ∋∞≤+ ≈†+≠∞+ †+∋≈ †+⊇∋+, †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∋∞⊇;∞∋ +† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≠∋≈ †;∂∞†+ ++∋†;†+, †+∋≈≈⊥++†∋†;+≈ †+ †∋+-+†† +∞⊥;+≈≈ ≠∋≈ ∋∞≤+ ∋++∞ ≤∞∋+∞+≈+∋∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ++ †++†, ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈† ⊥∞+⊥†∞ - †++≈∞ †+∋† ⊇;⊇ ≈+† +∞†+≈⊥ †+ †+∞ ∞⊥⊥∞+ ≤†∋≈≈ - ≠+∞+∞ ∋†∋+≈† ∋†≠∋+≈ ∞;†+∞+ ∋⊥+;≤∞††∞+∋†;≈†≈, +∞+⊇≈∋∞≈, ++ ≤+∋††≈∋∞≈.

4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 8;≈≈+∋+ 1;{;++++ 1+∋≈;, ∋ 19†+ ∋≈⊇ 20†+ ≤∞≈†∞++ ≤+∋∋∞≈†∋†++ ∋≈⊇ †+∋≈≈†∋†++ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋’≈ ≠+;†;≈⊥≈,[1811]&≈+≈⊥; 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ≠∋≈ †;=;≈⊥ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ ∋ †;∋∞ +† ⊥+†;†;≤∋† ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∋;†;†∋++ ≤+≈††;≤†; †+∞ ∋∋{++;†+ +† †+∞ +†+∞+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≠∞+∞ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† ≠++≈+;⊥⊥∞+≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ †;∂∞†+ ≈+† ≈+†∞†+ ⊇∞=+†∞⊇ †+ †+∞ 0+∞∋†++ 6+⊇ ∋⊇=+≤∋†∞⊇ ++ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋, +∞† †+ ≈∋∋††∞+ ⊇;=;≈;†;∞≈.

1+∋≈; ≈+†∞≈ †+∋† “;≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞-5+++∋≈†+;∋≈ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ ≤∞††∞+∞ †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋ ++≈† +† ⊇;=;≈;†;∞≈,” (1+∋≈;, 11) ∞∋≤+ +≈∞ ⊥∞+†++∋;≈⊥ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †∞≈≤†;+≈≈. 7+;≈ ≈+∞≈⊇≈ ∋≈∋†+⊥+∞≈ †+ †+∞ ≠++≈+;⊥⊥;≈⊥ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞≈ +† ⊇∞=+†∞∞≈ †+ 8;≈⊇∞;≈∋ †+⊇∋+, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+ †+∞ ⊥+∞-0++;≈†;∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∞-1≈†∋∋;≤ ≠++≈+;⊥⊥;≈⊥ ⊥∋††∞+≈≈ ≈†;†† ++≈∞+=∋+†∞ ;≈ ≈∞+-3∋+∋+∋≈ 4†+;≤∋ †+ †+;≈ ⊇∋+. 1† ≤+∞†⊇ +∞+∞ +∞ ≠++†+ ∋∞≈†;+≈;≈⊥ †+∋† ;≈ †+∞ ≤∋≈∞ +† 8;≈⊇∞;≈∋ ∋≈⊇ 4†+;≤∋≈ 7+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† 5∞†;⊥;+≈, †+∞ +∞†;∞† ;≈ †+∞ 0+∞∋†++ 6+⊇, ++ ≈+-≤∋††∞⊇ 8;⊥+ 6+⊇, ;≈ ≈+† ∋+≈∞≈†, +∞† ∋∞+∞†+ ≈+† †+∞ ≤∞≈†∞+ +† ∋††∞≈†;+≈, ∋≈ †+∞ ≠++≈+;⊥ ;≈ ∋++∞ †+≤∞≈∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ‘†∞≈≈∞+ ⊇;=;≈;†;∞≈’.

The preaching of Islam and Christianity in these contexts, as very likely also could have been the case during Zarathustra’s ministry, leads, or has led, according to  the majority of the scholars, to a re-orientation of the worship towards the ‘Most High God’. In other words, it is not a new ‘god’ that was introduced, but rather the God, who was always acknowledged, yet often neglected in worship, is now put in Its, His, or Her proper position of prominence, according to the view of the Christians and the Muslims. (In the case of Christianity, the worship of Christ is also introduced as quasi a new element.)[JH12] 

More information regarding Zarathustra can be gathered through his hymns, the Gathas, as these reveal his inner aspirations as well as perceived mission. To these we shall now turn.


2. Zarathustra’s Gathas[JH13] 

The Gathas are poetic hymns addressed largely to Ahura Mazda, similar to the Psalms of the Old Testament, although different in style. Ahura Mazda is the primary denominator used in the hymns to address God: Ahura means “Life”, Mazda may be translated as “Wisdom”.

This God, identified to be the ‘Creator’ (Yasna 29, Yasna 44, etc.) throughout the hymns, is continuously praised and petitioned by Zarathustra, in lieu of his quest to find an answer to the ethical dilemma, the rampant rule of wickedness and violence, of his time. Zarathustra himself is elected in the process of petitioning [JH14] to be a teacher of wisdom and righteousness, for the sake of the betterment of the world.

Aside from being addressed to Ahura Mazda and presenting information regarding Zoroaster, many of the hymns are also addressed to those who came .....

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1≈ †+†∋†, †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ 17 8∋;†;≈, ++ 8+∋≈≈, ≠;†+ ∋ †+†∋† +† 238 =∞+≈∞≈, ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ ;≈†+ 5 ≈∞+-≈∞≤†;+≈≈: 4+∞≈∋=∋;†;, 0≈+†∋=∋;†;, 3⊥∞≈†∋ 4∋;≈+∞, 2++∞ 9+≈+∋†++∋, ∋≈⊇ 2∋+;≈+†+ 1≈+†;. 3+;†∞ †+∞ †;+≈† ≈∞+-≈∞≤†;+≈, 4+∞≈∋=∋;†;, ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ≈∞=∞≈ 8∋;†;≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+;+⊇ ≈∞≤†;+≈ ≤+≈†∋;≈ †+∞+ ∞∋≤+, †+∞ †∋≈† †≠+ 8∋;†;≈ ∞∋≤+ {∞≈† ≤+≈†∋;≈ +≈∞ 8+∋≈.

4∋+≈⊥ †+∞≈∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≈∞+-≈∞≤†;+≈≈ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+† ∋†≠∋+≈ ∋ ≤†∞∋+ †+∞∋∋†;≤ ⊇;≈†;≈≤†;+≈. 4††∞+ +∋=;≈⊥ +∞∞≈ ≠+;††∞≈ ⊇+≠≈ ++ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋, †+∞ 8+∋≈≈ †∋†∞+ ≤∋∋∞ †+ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇, ;≈ ∋ †;†∞+⊥;≤∋† †++∋, ;≈ ∋ ≤∞+∞∋+≈+ (≤†. 1+∋≈;, 5). 7+∞ 17 8∋;†;≈, ++ 8∋≈, ∋≈ †+∞+ ∋+∞ ∋†≈+ ≤+∋∋+≈†+ ≤∋††∞⊇, ≠;†† ≈+≠ +∞ ∞≠⊥†++∞⊇ ;≈ ∋++∞ ⊇∞†∋;†, †++ †+∞+ †∞≈≤†;+≈ ∋≈ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ≈+∞+≤∞ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥≈ +† †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋.

4+≈† ≈≤++†∋+≈ ≈∞∞∋ †+ ⊥†∋≤∞ 5∋≈≈∋[1815]&≈+≈⊥; (8+∋≈) 29 ∋† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈, +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† +∞∋≈+≈≈ ;≈†∞+≈∋† †+ †+∞ †∞≠†, ∋††++∞⊥+ †∞≤+≈;≤∋††+ 5∋≈≈∋ 28 ;≈ †;+≈†.

1≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇ †+∞≈∞ 6∋†+∋≈ ≤+++∞≤††+, ;† ;≈ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† †+ +∞∋∞∋+∞+ †+∋† †+∞+ ∋+∞ ≈+† ≤+∋⊥+∞+∞≈≈;=∞ †+∞+†+⊥;≤∋† †+∞∋†;≈∞≈, ∋≈⊇ ⊇+ ≈+† ≈∞∞∂ †+ ⊥++=;⊇∞ ∋≈ ∋≈≈≠∞+ †+ ∋†† ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† 5+++∋≈†+;∋≈ †+∞+†+⊥+, {∞≈† ∋≈ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ≤+∞†⊇ ≈+† +∞ ≈∋;⊇ +∞⊥∋+⊇;≈⊥ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† ⊥++⊥+∞†≈. 1≈ †∋≤†, ⊥∞;†∞ +††∞≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞†;≤ ;∋∋⊥∞++ +† †+∞ 8+∋≈≈, ≤+∋⊥∋+∋+†∞ †+ †+∋† +† †+∞ 0≈∋†∋≈ ++ ∋≈+ +†+∞+ ⊥+∞†++, ≈∞∞∂≈ †+ ∋∞≤+ +∋†+∞+ ∞=+∂∞ ∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ ≠;†+;≈ †+∞ +∞∋+∞+ +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ †+ +∞≈⊥+≈⊇ †+ ∋ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈ +∞ ++ ≈+∞ ∋;⊥+† +∋=∞.

1† ;≈ ++⊥∞⊇ †+∋† †+∞ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† †+;≈ ≈+∞+≤∞ {∞≈†;†;∞≈ †+∞;+ ∞†∋+++∋†∞ †+∞∋†∋∞≈† +∞+∞.

5∋≈≈∋ 29 +∞⊥;≈≈ ≠;†+ ∋ †∋∋∞≈†∋†;+≈ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ‘3+∞† +† 0+∞∋†;+≈’, ;≈ †;⊥+† +† †+∞ ⊇∞≈†+∞≤†;+≈ ≠+;≤+ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ≤∋∞≈∞⊇ ++ ∞=;†-⊇+∞+≈ ;≈ †+∞ †∋≈⊇, ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ++≈†+∞≤†≈ †+∞ ≠∋+ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †;=;≈⊥ ∋ ⊥∞∋≤∞†∞† †;†∞.

7+∞ 3+∞† +† 0+∞∋†;+≈ ≤+∞†⊇ +∞†∞+ †+ +∞∋∋≈;†+ ++ ≤+∞∋†;+≈ ∋≈ ∋ ≠++†∞ +∞+∞. 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ †+∞≈ ∋≈∂≈ 4≈+∋, †+∞ 7+∞†+, ≠++ ≠;†† ∋∋∞≈⊇ †+;≈ ≈;†∞∋†;+≈, +∞† †+∞ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ ;≈ †+∋† †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+ +≈∞ ≠++ ≤∋≈ ⊇+ ≈+. 1≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞, 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ⊥∞†;†;+≈≈ †++ ⊥++†∞≤†;+≈ +† †+∞ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ †+∋† +∞ +;∋≈∞†† ;≈ ∋∋⊇∞ †+∞ “⊥++†∞≤†++ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞;⊇∞, †++ †+∞ ≠∞††∋+∞ +† †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ ⊇;†;⊥∞≈† ⊥∞+⊥†∞” (6.)[1816]&≈+≈⊥;.

7+∞ 8+∋≈≈ +† †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈ ∋+∞ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥;†† †++∋ 6+⊇, {∞≈† ∋≈ †+∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥≈ †+∞+∞;≈ ≤+≈†∋;≈∞⊇, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ “†++ †+∞ ≠∞††-+∞;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞.” [1817]&≈+≈⊥;5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ;≈ ≈∋;⊇ †+ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ †+∞ +≈†+ +≈∞ ≠++ †;≈†∞≈∞⊇ †+ †+∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥≈ +† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ (≤†. 8.) [1818]&≈+≈⊥;1†[1819]&≈+≈⊥; ∞≈⊇≈ ++ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ⊥∞†;†;+≈;≈⊥ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ ∋≈⊇ +;≈ 3⊥;+;† +† 7+∞†+ ∋≈⊇ 5;⊥+†[1820]&≈+≈⊥; †+ +∞†⊥ +;∋ ∋≈⊇ †+ ⊥;=∞ +;∋ †+∞ ∋∞†+++;†+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+≠∞+ †+ ∋≤≤+∋⊥†;≈+ †+∞ ⊥+∋† +† ⊥++≤∞+;≈⊥ ⊥∞∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈ †+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ “[+]† ≠+;≤+,7++∞, 0 7++⊇, ∋+† ;≈⊇∞∞⊇ †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥+≈≈∞≈≈++”[1821]&≈+≈⊥;.

5∋≈≈∋ 28, †+∞ 8+∋≈ †+∋† ;≈ ≤+∋∋+≈†+ ⊥∞† ∋††∞+ 5∋≈≈∋ 29 ∋††++∞⊥+ ;† ++;⊥;≈∋††+ ⊥++≤∞∞⊇∞⊇ ;†, +∞⊥;≈≈ ≠;†+ †+∞ “∋+≈† ≤∞†∞++∋†∞⊇ =∞+≈∞ ;≈ †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈” (1+∋≈;, 9):

1≈ +∞∋+†∞ ∋⊇++∋†;+≈, ≠;†+ +∋≈⊇≈ +∞†≈†+∞†≤+∞⊇/ 1 ⊥+∋+ †+ 7+∞∞, 0 4∋=⊇∋!
6;+≈† +† ∋††, †+++∞⊥+ 7++ 8+†+ 3⊥;+;† =+∞≤+≈∋†∞ †+ ∋∞/ 4†† +;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈ +† ∋≤†;+≈, ∋†† ≠;≈⊇+∋ +† †+∞ 6++⊇ 4;≈⊇/ 7+∋† 1 ∋∋+ †+∞+∞++ ++;≈⊥ {++ †+ †+∞ 3+∞† +† 0+∞∋†;+≈
[1822]&≈+≈⊥;. (1.)

7+;≈ ⊥+∋+∞+ ;≈ ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+;≈†;≤ †++ †+∞ ∋††;†∞⊇∞ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ †+∞ †+∞∋∞ †+∋† ‘+;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈ +† ∋≤†;+≈’ ∋≈⊇ ‘≠;≈⊇+∋ +† †+∞ 6++⊇ 4;≈⊇’ ++;≈⊥ ‘{++’ †+ 0+∞∋†;+≈, ;.∞. †+∋† ⊥++⊇ †++∞⊥+† ∋≈⊇ ⊥++⊇ ∋≤†;+≈ †∞∋⊇ †+ †+∞ ⊥∞∋≤∞ ∋≈⊇ ≠∞††-†∋+∞ +† ≤+∞∋†;+≈.

Zarathustra furthermore says that his Hymns will take the ‘awakened soul’ to the “Dominion of Heaven” [JH23] and commits himself to be a teacher of Right[JH24]  and Truth to all that seek after it.

Throughout the Haitis, Zarathustra invokes various addresses, all of which are one the one hand distinguished from Ahura Mazda and yet, implicitly and yet unmistakably, understood to be part of Him: The Sprits of Truth and the Good Mind (cf. Ibid., 3); Armaity, the Spirit of Benevolence (cf. Ibid., 3); Asha, ‘equipped with the knowledge of Truth and Righteousness’ (Ibid., 5); The Eternal Wise Spirit (which could be a designation of Ahura Mazda as well) (cf.

Ibid.6); Truth and Piety (cf. Ibid., 7). The addressing of these qualities of Ahura Mazda instead of Ahura Mazda himself is likely a rhetorical device, as there is no indication that Zarathustra makes in truth any difference between these qualities of Ahura Mazda and Ahura Mazda himself. He petitions these for aid in his divine quest and asks them for such gifts as righteousness or wisdom[JH25] .

Yasna 30 begins by stating that it is addressed to the listeners. Two primal spirits are described, the Good and the Evil. These two primal spirits are ‘eternal’, i.e. they will not pass away as .....

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7+∞ ≠;≈∞ ∋∞≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠+++†∞⊇ †+ ⊇∞≤;⊇∞ ∋+;⊥+†. 7+ ≤+++≈∞ 7+∞†+ ∋≈⊇ 5;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈ ;≈ †+ ≤+++≈∞ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ †+∋† ;≈ ≠∞††-†;∂∞⊇ ++ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ≠+;†∞ †++≈∞ †+∋† ∞≈†∞+ +≈ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ +† ∞=;† ∋+∞ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ∋≈ ‘8∞∋+≈ 3++≈+;⊥⊥∞+≈’ (6.)[1826]&≈+≈⊥;.

4∋≈ ;≈ ≤∋††∞⊇ ∞⊥+≈ †+ +∞ ∋∋+≈⊥ †++≈∞ †+∋† ∋∋∂∞ ‘†+∞ ≠++†⊇ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ ⊥∞+†∞≤†;+≈’ (9.); †+;≈∂;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋≈ ∋;⊇ ;≈ †+;≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈[1827]&≈+≈⊥;.

7+∞ ≤+∋∋∋≈⊇∋∞≈†≈ ⊥;=∞≈ ++ ‘†+∞ 3;≈∞ 7++⊇’ †∞∋⊇ †+ +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋;≈: +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈ †++ †++≈∞ †+∋† †+††+≠ †+∞∋, ≠+;†∞ ⊥∋;≈ ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞†† †++ †++≈∞ †+∋† +∞{∞≤† †+∞∋ (11.).

1≈ 5∋≈≈∋ 31, †+∞ ≤+∋∋+≈ †+∞∋∞≈ +† ⊥∞†;†;+≈;≈⊥ †++ +∞†⊥, ⊇∞=+†;+≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈≈+∞≈≤∞∋∞≈† +† †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ †++ †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋+∞ +∞⊥∞∋†∞⊇. 1≈ 3†∋≈=∋ 6 ;† ;≈ ⊇∞≤†∋+∞⊇ †+∋† +∞ ≠++ †∞∋≤+∞≈ †+∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ ;≈ +† †+∞ +∞≈† ≈†∋†∞, ;.∞. ∋ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ ∞≠∋††∞⊇ ⊥+≈;†;+≈.

7+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋≈ ;≈†∞+∞≈†;≈⊥ ⊥∋+∋††∞† +∞+∞ †+ †+∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥ +† 0++;≈† †+∋† †++≈∞ ≠++ ++†⊇ ∋≈⊇ †∞∋≤+[1828]&≈+≈⊥; +;≈ ≤+∋∋∋≈⊇∋∞≈†≈ ≠;†† +∞ ≤∋††∞⊇ ‘⊥+∞∋† ;≈ †+∞ ∂;≈⊥⊇+∋ +† +∞∋=∞≈’, (4∋††+∞≠ 5:19), ≠+∞+∞∋≈ †++≈∞ †+∋† †∞∋⊇ +†+∞+≈, ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+†+ ≤+;†⊇+∞≈ †+∋† +∞†;∞=∞ ;≈ 0++;≈†, ∋≈†+∋+, ≠;†† ∋†≈+ ≈∞††∞+ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞≈ (4∋††+∞≠ 18:6; 4∋+∂ 9:42; 7∞∂∞ 17:2).

1≈ 5∋≈≈∋ 32, †+∞ ≤+≈††;≤† +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ⊥++⊇ +≈∞≈ †+∋† †+††+≠ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ +† +;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ +† †+∞ ∞=;† +≈∞≈ †+∋† ++≈†+∞≤† †+∞ ≠∋+ †+ ††+∞+;≈+;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋⊥∋;≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈⊇∞⊇. 7+∞ ∞≈∞∋;∞≈ +† †+∞ 7+∞†+ ∋+∞ †++∞∋†∞≈∞⊇, ≠∋+≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋††∞⊇ ‘⊥++⊇∞≤†≈ +† .....

0≈∞ ∞=;†-⊇+∞+, 5;∋∋, ;≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ++ ≈∋∋∞ (8.). 4≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ ≤+++++++∋†;=∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈, +∞ ∋≈⊇ +;≈ ≤+∋⊥∋†+;+†≈ {∞≈†;†;∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++∋+†∞⊇ +∞∋∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈;∋∋† ≈†∋∞⊥+†∞+ (1+∋≈;, 10), ∋††++∞⊥+ ;≈ †+∞ 8+∋≈ ;†≈∞††, +≈†+ †+∞ ‘≈∋≈≤†;+≈;≈⊥’ +† †+∞ ††∞≈+ +† †+∞ 0+≠ ;≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ ;† ;≈ ≈+† ⊥∞;†∞ ≤†∞∋+ ≠+∋† ;≈ ∋∞∋≈† +∞+∞. 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ⊥++≤∞∞⊇≈ ≠;†+ ∋ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ +† ≠∋+≈;≈⊥ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ ∞=;†-⊇+∞+≈ (9.-16.).
1≈ 5∋≈≈∋ 33, 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋⊥∋;≈ ≈;≈⊥≈ ∋++∞† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ≠++∋ +∞ ≤∋††≈ 5∋†∞, ;.∞.

1∞⊇⊥∞, ∋≈⊇ ≈∋+≈ †+∋† +∞ ≠;†† {∞⊇⊥∞ ∞=∞++++⊇+ +;⊥+††+ (1.). 4† ∋ ≤∞+†∋;≈ ⊥+;≈† ;≈ †+∞ ≈⊥∞∞≤+, †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞† ⊇∞≈;+∞≈ †+ +∞ +†∞≈≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ ∋ =;≈;+≈, ⊥+∞≈∞∋∋+†+ ++ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ∋≈⊇ †+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†∞ ≠;†+ 8;∋. 8∞ ⊇∞≈;+∞≈ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ †+ ‘≤+∋∞ +;†+∞+ †+ [+;∋]’ (6.). 4⊥∋;≈, ⊥∞†;†;+≈≈ †++ ⊇;=;≈∞ +∞†⊥ ∋+∞ ∋∋⊇∞, +≈∞ +† †+∞∋ ∋≈∂;≈⊥ †++ ‘⊥+∋≤∞’, ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ‘∋∋∂∞ ≠;⊇∞ †+∞ =;≈;+≈ +† ∋+ ∋;≈⊇; ∋∋∂∞ ∋∋≈;†∞≈† 7++ ∞=∞+†∋≈†;≈⊥ ∋††+;+∞†∞≈; 4∋∂∞ ∂≈+≠≈ †+∞ +†∞≈≈;≈⊥≈ +† 7++ 9;≈⊥⊇+∋ +† 8∞∋=∞≈ […]’ (13).

1≈ †+∞ †∋≈† ⊥∋+†, 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ +††∞+≈ +;∋≈∞†† ∋≈ ∋≈ +††∞+;≈⊥ †+ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ∋ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† ≠+;≤+, ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ 8. 1. 1+∋≈; ≤+∋∋∞≈†∋†++, ≈†∋≈⊇≈ ;≈ ≈†∋+∂ ≤+≈†+∋≈† †+ †+∞ ⊥+∋≠;≈ +† †+∞ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋† ≠++≈+;⊥⊥∞+≈ †+∋† †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞† ∋+≈††+ ∋;≈;≈†∞+∞⊇ †+.

Yasna 34 again begins by Zarathustra dedicating himself to the service of Ahura Mazda (1). He asks to know the proper way of worship, which is “good thought, good word, good action” (13). Following this doctrine and tending Creation properly also has a positive effect on the health of the practitioner (14), and it is also because of this, that Zarathustra, in the concluding verse, again asks Ahura Mazda for the knowledge of his teaching and for the regeneration of “existence” (15).

This is the conclusion of the first sub-section of the 17 Hymns of Zarathustra, the Ahunavaiti. The second part, the next four Hymns, is called, as was mentioned above, the Ushtavaiti. Many of the themes of the earlier Yasnas are repeated, and others are added.

Yasna 43 repeats the theme of the blessedness of those that pursue righteousness. It reiterates the principle that God will give to everyone according to his or her actions – “Good to the good, evil to the evil” (5.).

Zarathustra identifies himself as a “friend of the good” who “shall […] strive to enlighten and awaken all to the realization of [Ahura Mazda’s] Eternal Dominion” (8.) Petitions for wisdom, righteousness and a long and “blessed” life follow (13.).

In Yasna 44, Zarathustra asks for the right form of veneration and enters into a series of questions regarding the origin of creation and its assortment, as well as other questions pertaining to his quest for right.....

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3++ ;≈ †+∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† “†;⊥+† ∋≈⊇ ⊇∋+∂≈∞≈≈” (5) ∋≈⊇ “≠++ ≈+ +∋†∋≈≤∞⊇ †+∞ ∞∋+†+ ∋≈⊇ +∞∋=∞≈≈ †+ ∂∞∞⊥ †+∞∋ ∋⊥∋+†?”(4). 7+∞≈∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ∋+∞, ++≠∞=∞+, ∋++∞ ∋∞∋≈† ∋≈ ∋≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈;+≈ +† †+∞ +∞∋+≈;≈⊥ †++ ∋ ⊇∞∞⊥∞+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ 0+∞∋†++, 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ∋≈ 8∞[1829]&≈+≈⊥; ;≈ †+∞ ++=;+∞≈ ∋≈≈≠∞+.

0≈∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈†∋†++ (1+∋≈;, 11), +∞∋∋+∂≈: “1† ;≈ +∞†∞=∋≈† †+ ≈+†∞ †+∋† ;≈ †+∞ ⊥+∞-5+++∋≈†+;∋≈ +∞†;⊥;+∞≈ ≤∞††∞+∞ †+∞+∞ ≠∞+∞ ∋ ++≈† +† ⊇;=;≈;†;∞≈ ⊥∞+†++∋;≈⊥ †+∞≈∞ †∞≈≤†;+≈≈.” 7+∞ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ †+∞≈ ≈†∋≈⊇ ;≈ ⊇;+∞≤† +⊥⊥+≈;†;+≈ †+ †+;≈ ≠++†⊇-=;∞≠.

5∋≈≈∋ 45 ;≈ ⊇;+∞≤†∞⊇ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ +∞∋+∞+≈ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋’≈ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞, ∋≈ +∞ ⊥++≤†∋;∋≈ +;∋≈∞†† †+ +∞ ∋ †∞∋≤+∞+ +† ⊥++⊇ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥. 7++≈∞ †+∋† †+††+≠ +;≈ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥≈ ≤∋≈ ∋††∋;≈ ;∋∋++†∋†;†+ (7), +∞† †+∞ ∞≈⊇ +† †++≈∞ †+∋† +∞{∞≤† ;† ∋∋+ +∞ ∋;≈∞++.

4 ⊥+≈≈;+†+ ∋+†++†+⊥;≤∋† ∞≈≤+∞≈†∞+ +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ †≠+ ⊥+;∋∋† ≈⊥;+;†≈, †+∞ ≈⊥;+;† +† ∞=;† ∋≈⊇ ;†≈ +⊥⊥+≈∞≈† ;≈ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇. 7+∞ “++†;∞+ +† †+∞ †≠+” ≈⊥∞∋∂≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞⊥∞⊇;∋†∞≈ †+∞ ∞=;† ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞ (2.). 7+∞ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥≈ †+∋† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ++;≈⊥≈ ∋+∞ ;⊇∞≈†;†;∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞ “6;+≈† 0+;≈≤;⊥†∞ +† 7;†∞”. 4⊥∋;≈ ;† ;≈ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈∞⊇ †+∋† ;† ;≈ +∞≈† ;≈ †;†∞ †+ “∋≤† ;≈ ≤+≈≈+≈∋≈≤∞ ≠;†+ †+∞ 3⊥;+;† +† 7+∞†+, †+∞ ++†+ 4≈+∋” (3.).

1≈ 5∋≈≈∋ 46, 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ †∋∋∞≈†≈ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +;≈ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ ;≈ +∞{∞≤†∞⊇. 1† ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ≈∞≈⊥ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ ∋≈ ∞∋+†+ ≈†∋⊥∞ +† +;≈ ∋;≈;≈†++ (1+∋≈;, 11). 7+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ ≈+≈⊥, +∞ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈∞≈ †+∋† “+∞ ≠++ †++∂≈ ∞⊥+≈ ∞=;† ≠;†+ †+†∞+∋≈≤∞ ;≈ ≈+ +†+∞+ †+∋≈ ∞=;†.” (6.) 7+∞ 9∋+⊥∋≈≈, ≠++ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ +≈∞ ≈≤++†∋+ (1+∋≈;, 9), ∋+∞ ∋∞∋+∞+≈ +† ∋ ⊥+;∞≈††+ ≤∋≈†∞, ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 9∋=;≈, ≠++ ∋+∞ ⊥+;≈≤∞≈, +∞†∞+≈, ++ ≤+;∞†≈ +† ∋ †+;+∞, ∋+∞ +∞⊥∞⊇;∋†∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞+ “+∋=∞ †++∋≈≈;=∞⊇ +.....

7+∞+ ≈+∋†† ≈∞††∞+ †+∞ ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞≈ +† †+∞;+ ∋≤†;+≈ ≠+∞≈ ≤++≈≈;≈⊥ †+∞ “3+;⊇⊥∞ +† 1∞⊇⊥∋∞≈†”. 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ≤+≈†;≈∞∞≈ †+ ∞≠+++† †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ †+ ≤+++≈∞ +;⊥+† +=∞+ ≠++≈⊥ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ++;≈⊥ ≤+∞∋†;+≈ ≤†+≈∞+ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+∞ “6+∞∋† 5∞≈+=∋†;+≈”, [1830]&≈+≈⊥;∋ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† †+∋† ;≈ ≈+† ∋++∞ ≤†∞∋+†+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ +∞+∞, +∞† †;∂∞†+ ∞≈†∋;†≈ †+∞ ∞†+;≤∋† +∞≈∞≠∋† +† †+∞ +∞∋∋≈ ≈+≤;∞†+ (19).

7+∞ †+;+⊇ ≈∞+-≈∞≤†;+≈, 3⊥∞≈†∋ 4∋;≈+∞, ∋†≈+ ≤+≈†∋;≈≈ †+∞+ 8+∋≈≈, †;††∞⊇ 5∋≈≈∋≈ 47-50.
5∋≈≈∋ 47 ∞≈†∋;†≈ †∞+†+∞+ ⊥∞†;†;+≈≈ †++ †+∞ 3⊥;+;† +† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ †+ ;≈≈†+∞≤† ∋≈⊇ †∞∋≤+. 7+;≈ 3⊥;+;†, †+∋† ≈++∞†⊇ ≈+† +∞ ≤+≈≤∞;=∞⊇ ∋≈ ∋ ≈∞⊥∋+∋†∞ ∞≈†;†+ ≠;†+ ∋ ⊇;≈†;≈≤† ⊥∞+≈+≈∋†;†+ (1+∋≈;, 12), ;≈ ∋≈ ∋†††;≤†;+≈ †+ †+∞ ∞=;†-⊇+∞+≈, +∞† ≈+† †+ †+∞ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈.

4†† ⊥++⊇ †+;≈⊥≈ +∋=∞ +∞∞≈ ∋≈≈;⊥≈∞⊇ †+ †+∞ ⊥++⊇, +∞† †++≈∞ †+∋† ≠∋†∂ +≈ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ +† †∋†≈;†+ ≈+∋†† +∞∋⊥ ⊇∞≈†+∞≤†;+≈ (5.). 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ ;≈ †+∞ {∞≈† +≈∞ ≠++ ⊥;=∞≈ †+ ∞=∞+++≈∞ +;≈ ++ +∞+ ⊇∞∞ (6.).

1≈ 5∋≈≈∋ 48, ∋ †;∋∞ ;≈ ∞≈=;≈;+≈∞⊇ ≠+∞≈ 7+∞†+ ≠;†† +∋=∞ ⊇∞†∞∋†∞⊇ ∋†† 7;∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞†† ∋⊇++∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ 6†+++ +† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ ∋∋+ †∋∂∞ ⊥†∋≤∞ [1831]&≈+≈⊥;(1.).

The mind is understood as being the source of the behavior of the human as, for the evil-doers, ‘their words and deeds will reflect their sentiments (4). Man is called upon to care for the land (5.), to abandon any ill-will and anger (7.), and good rulership is prayed for (5.). Those that diligently seek to better the earth are deemed ‘saviors of the earth’ (12.).

In Yasna 49, a certain man called Bandva is mentioned who, supposedly, has withstood the ministry of Zarathustra. He has been a ‘stubborn foe’ (1.), ‘impervious […] to the influence of the Good Mind’ (2.). Aside from that, common themes such as the petitioning for righteousness, the beneficial effect of the way of righteousness, and the judgment of Ahura Mazda, are repeated.

In Yasna 50, the last Hymn of Spenta Mainyu, addressed to Ahura Mazda, Zarathustra reiterates the theme of righteousness leading to blessedness.). As in the other Hymns, Zarathustra petitions for help (6.) and expresses his devotion towards the cause of Ahura Mazda (11.).

Yasna 51, the only hymn in the fourth sub-section titled Vohu Khshathra, has the realization of righteousness on the governmental level as its central theme. He reiterates some of the themes of the other Hymns. A good man devoted to this good cause may attain to the ‘Kingdom of .....

5∋≈≈∋ 53, †+∞ †∋≈† 8+∋≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ +≈†+ +≈∞ ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ⊥∋+† +† †+∞ ≈∞≤†;+≈ 2∋+;≈†++ 1≈+†;, ;≈ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† †++∋ †+∞ +†+∞+≈ ∋≈ ;† †∋∂∞≈ ⊥†∋≤∞ ⊇∞+;≈⊥ ∋ ⊇;≈≤∞+≈;+†∞ ∞=∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ †;†∞ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋: †+∞ ≠∞⊇⊇;≈⊥ +† +;≈ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+.

4† †+∞ ≠∞⊇⊇;≈⊥, +∞ +∞;†∞+∋†∞≈ †+∞ †+∞∋∞≈ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ =∞+≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ +;≈ ⊇∋∞⊥+†∞+ +;⊇≈[1832]&≈+≈⊥; †+ †+††+≠ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋+ +† ⊥;∞†+ ∋≈⊇ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈, +∞ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞≈ †+∞ ++-≈†∋≈⊇∞+≈, ;≈≈†+∞≤†;≈⊥ †+∞∋ †+ ≠∋†∂ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ +† 7+∞†+ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∋††∋;≈ +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈ †+⊥∞†+∞+; †++ †+∞ ≠∋+ +† †∋†≈∞+++⊇ ≠;†† †∞∋⊇ †+ ∞≈+∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈.

8∞ ∋†≈+ ∞≈=;≈;+≈≈ ∋ †;∋∞ ≠+∞≈ ∞=∞++++⊇+, ∋† †∋≈†, ≠;†† †∞+≈ †+ †+∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈ +† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋ (1.), ∋≈⊇ †;≈;≈+∞≈ †+;≈ 8+∋≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈, ≠;†+ ∋≈+†+∞+ ∞≠≤†∋∋∋†;+≈ ;≈=+∂;≈⊥ †+∞ {∞≈† {∞⊇⊥∋∞≈† +† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋.

1≈ ≈∞∋∋∋++, †+∞ 6∋†+;≤ 8+∋≈≈ ∋+∞ ⊥+∞∋≈ +† ⊥+∋;≈∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞†;†;+≈;≈⊥ ;≈ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ +∞∋+∞+≈ ∋+∞ ∞≠+++†∞⊇ †+ †++≈∋∂∞ †+∞ ≠∋+ +† ∞=;†-⊇+;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+ ⊥∞+≈∞∞ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ +† 6++⊇≈∞≈≈ (“6++⊇ 7++∞⊥+†, 6++⊇ 3++⊇, 6++⊇ 4≤†;+≈”), ∋≈ ;† ;≈ †+;≈ ≠∋+ †+∋† †∞∋⊇≈ †+ +∋⊥⊥;≈∞≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∞∋≤∞, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ †∞∋⊇≈ †+ ⊥∋;≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≈†+∞≤†;+≈.

9∋≤+ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ≠;†† +∞≤∞;=∞ +;≈ ++ +∞+ ⊇∞∞ +∞≠∋+⊇ ++ ⊥∞≈;≈+∋∞≈† †++∋ 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ≠++ ;≈ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋† =∋+;+∞≈ ⊥+;≈†≈ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈, ∋≈ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ +∞⊥∞∞≈†≈ 5;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈, 7+∞†+, ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ ⊥∞∋†;†;∞≈ †++∋ 8;∋.

3. 7+∞ 0+≈∋+†+⊥+ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ 4≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† †+∞ 6+≈⊥∞† +† 1++≈
7+∞ ∞≈⊇∞+†+;≈⊥ ≠++†⊇=;∞≠ +† †+∞ 6∋†+∋≈ +∞≈†≈ ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ +≈ †≠+ †+∞≈⊇∋†;+≈≈.

6;+≈††+, 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, {∞≈† ∋≈ †+∞ 6+⊇ ⊇∞≈+∋;≈∋†∞⊇[1833]&≈+≈⊥; 1838 ;≈ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈†, ;≈ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†++⊇ †+ +∞ †+∞ 0+∞∋†+.....

8∞ ;≈ ∋≤≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞⊇ ++ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ +† +;≈ +≠≈ 3∞;≈⊥: 7+∞†+, †+∞ 6++⊇ 4;≈⊇, 0;∞†+, †+∞ 9;≈⊥⊇+∋ +† 8∞∋=∞≈, 1∋∋++†∋†;†+, ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ∋∂;≈ †+ †+∞ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† +† 3+∋†+∋, ;.∞. ⊥∞∋≤∞, 3;≈⊇+∋, 5;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈, ∞†≤. 1† ≠+∞†⊇ ≈+† +∞ ≠++≈⊥, ;≈ †+;≈ ≤+≈†∞≠† †+ ≈∋+ †+∋† †+∞ 8;⊥+∞≈† 3∞;≈⊥ ;≈ 7+∞†+, 3;≈⊇+∋, 0;∞†+, †+∞ 6++⊇ 4;≈⊇, ∞†≤., ∋≈⊇ +∞† ;† ≠+∞†⊇ ≈+† ⊇+ {∞≈†;≤∞ †+ †+∞ 5+++∋≈†+;∋≈ ≤+≈∋+†+⊥+ †+ †∞+≈ †+∞ †≠+ ∋≈⊥∞≤†≈ ∋++∞≈⊇ ∋≈⊇ ≤∋†† 7+∞†+, 3;≈⊇+∋, ++ ∋≈+ +†+∞+ ∋≈⊥∞≤† +† †+∞ 8;=;≈;†+ 6+⊇ – †+;≈, ⊥;∞†+ ≠+∞†⊇ ≈+† ⊥∞+∋;†.

7+;≈ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†;+≈ †;≈⊇≈ ;†≈ ⊥∋+†;∋† ⊥∋+∋††∞† ;≈ †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† ≤+≈≤∞⊥† +† ‘3;≈⊇+∋’ ∋≈ ∞≠⊥†∋;≈∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ +++∂ +† 0++=∞++≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ †+∞ 4∞≠ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ 0+≈≤∞⊥† +† ‘7+⊥+≈’ ;≈ †+∞ 6+≈⊥∞† +† 1++≈. 1≈ ++†+ ≤∋≈∞≈, †+∞ †≠+ ∞≈†;†;∞≈ ∋+∞ ≤+≈≤∞;=∞⊇ (++ +∞≤+⊥≈;=∞⊇?) ∋≈ +∞;≈⊥ ∋† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ ≠;†+ 6+⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ +∞;≈⊥ +† 6+⊇. 4≈ +∋=;≈⊥ †+∞;+ 3+∞+≤∞ ;≈ 6+⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ +∞;≈⊥ †+∞ ;≈≈†+∞∋∞≈† †+++∞⊥+ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∋∋⊇∞ (0++=∞++≈ 8:22-31; 1++≈ 1:1-3).

7+∞ ∋≈⊥∞≤† +† †+∞ 7+⊥+≈, ≠+;≤+ ≤∋≈ =∋+;∋+†+ +∞ †+∋≈≈†∋†∞⊇ ∋≈ 6++⊇≈∞≈≈, ++ ∋∋++∞ 6++⊇ 4;≈⊇, ++ 3++⊇, +∞;≈⊥ †+∋† †+++∞⊥+ ≠+;≤+ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ≤∋∋∞ ;≈†+ +∞;≈⊥, ;≈ ∋†≈+ ⊥+∞†;≤∋††+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ≤+∋⊥†∞+≈ +† 6∞≈∞≈;≈. 8∞+∞, ;† ;≈ 6+⊇ ≠++ †+++∞⊥+ +;≈ ≠++⊇ ≤+∞∋†∞≈ †+∞ ≠++†⊇ ∋≈⊇ ++;≈⊥≈ ;† ;≈†+ ++⊇∞+ (6∞≈∞≈;≈ 1). 7+∞ 7+⊥+≈ †∞+∋ +† †+∞ †;+≈† ≤∞≈†∞++, †+∞ †;∋∞ ≠+∞≈ †+∞ 9=∋≈⊥∞†;≈† 1++≈ ≠∋≈ ≠+;†;≈⊥, ≈+∞⊥+† †+ ∞≈≤∋⊥≈∞†∋†∞ ;≈ ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ †+∞ ∞†∞+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ 0∞∋†;†;∞≈ +† 6+⊇, ;.∞. ⊥+;∋∋+;†+ +;≈ ⊥++⊇≈∞≈≈, +∞† ∋†≈+ +;≈ ⊥∞≈††∞≈∞≈≈, †∋;†+†∞†≈∞≈≈, ∂;≈⊇≈∞≈≈, {∞≈†;≤∞, ⊥∞∋≤∞†∞†≈∞≈≈, ∞†≤.

7+;≈ ;≈ ;≈ ⊇;+∞≤† ∋≈∋†+⊥+ †+ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋’≈ †∞∋≤+;≈⊥: ;† ;≈ ∋≈ ;† 0†∋†+, ≠++ ≠∋≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ≠++ ∞≠⊥†;≤;††+ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ †+∞ 7+⊥+≈ ≤+≈≤∞⊥†, ∋≈⊇ 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ⊥∞+≤∞;=∞ †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ ∞≈†;†+. 4++∞+=∞+, 1++≈ ≈∞∞∋≈ †+ ;∋⊥†+ †+∋† 1∞≈∞≈, †+∞ 0++;≈†, +;∋≈∞†† ;≈ †+∞ †;=;≈⊥ ∞∋++⊇;∋∞≈† +† †+∞≈∞ ∞†∞+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ∞≈≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ⊥∞∋†;†;∞≈, †+∋† ;≈, +∞ ;≈ 0;∞†+, 7+∞†+†∞†≈∞≈≈, 6++⊇≈∞≈≈, 9;≈⊇≈∞≈≈, 1∞≈†;≤∞, 6;⊇∞†;†+, 0∞∋≤∞†∞†≈∞≈≈, ∞†≤. ;≈ ⊥∞+≈+≈∋∞.

Throughout the Gospel of John, the Christ, who has traditionally been called the ‘Wisdom of God’ also describes himself as being the ‘Light’, the ‘Truth’, the ‘Way’, and hence it would make coherent sense to replace the word ‘Logos’ in the first chapter of John with those words. And again, the coherence between Zarathustra’s experience, as expressed in his Hymns, and the message of the Gospel of John, whether formulated in direct knowledge of Zoroastrianism or not, is striking.

Christ, then, according to the message of John the Evangelist, would be the One in whom the entities that Zarathustra eulogistically exalted and invoked, such as the Spirit of Truth, or the Spirit of Righteousness, are embodied. From a human perspective, and this is often times recognized even by those who would not deem themselves ‘Christian’, Christ is someone that quasi lived the ideals of the Zoroastrian religion, i.e. he was, according to the picture conveyed in the Gospels and to the extent which this is perceptible from an outside perspective, a human being that had ‘good thoughts, good words, good actions’.

Here again it is possible to discern continuity between the message of Za.....

7+∞ ≤+≈≤∞⊥† +† ⊥+∋≤∞ †+∞≈⊇ 5∋≈≈∋ 33 ;≈ ≈†∋≈=∋ 9 ∋≈⊇ 13 ≈∞∞∋≈ ∋†≈+ †+ +∞ ;≈ ⊇;+∞≤† ≤+++∞≈⊥+≈⊇∞≈≤∞ †+ †+∋† ≠+;≤+ +∋≈ †+∋⊇;†;+≈∋††+ +∞∞≈ +∞†⊇ ++ 0++;≈†;∋≈ †+∞+†+⊥+, ;.∞. †+∞ ⊥+≠∞+ +† 6+⊇ ≠+;≤+ ⊥++⊇∞≤∞≈ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈, ∋ ⊇;=;≈∞ ;≈††∞∞≈≤∞ +≈ ∋∋≈’≈ ≈+∞† †+∋† ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈∞≈ ;†≈∞†† ;≈ =;+†∞∞. [1834]&≈+≈⊥;7+∞≈, ∋≈+ =;+†∞∞ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈∞⊇ ++ ∋ +∞∋∋≈ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞†††∞∞≈≤∞ +† ⊇;=;≈∞ ⊥+∋≤∞.

1≈ 5∋≈≈∋ 33, ∋†† †+∞ ‘†∞†;≤;†;∞≈ +† †;†∞’ ∋+∞ +∞≤∂+≈∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋∞ †+++∞⊥+ 8;=;≈∞ 6+∋≤∞ (≤+∋⊥. †+ 1∋∋∞≈ 1:17), ∋≈⊇ ;† ;≈ †+++∞⊥+ ⊥+∋≤∞ †+∋† †+∞ 7++⊇, 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋, ∋∋∂∞≈ “∋∋≈;†∞≈† +;≈ ∞=∞+†∋≈†;≈⊥ ∋††+;+∞†∞≈”. 1≈ †+∞ 6+≈⊥∞† +† 1++≈, 0++;≈†, †+∞ 6+∋≤∞⊇ 0≈∞, ;≈ ⊥+∞≈∞≈†∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞ +≈∞ ‘†++∋ [≠++≈∞] †∞††≈∞≈≈ ≠∞ +∋=∞ ∋†† +∞≤∞;=∞⊇, ⊥+∋≤∞ ∞⊥+≈ ⊥+∋≤∞’ (1++≈ 1:16).


4. 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ 0++⊥+∞†;≤ 7;†∞+∋†∞+∞ – 0+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈

9=∞≈ ∋ ≤∞+≈+++ +∞∋⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞†;≤ +++∂≈ +† †+∞ 0†⊇ 7∞≈†∋∋∞≈† +∞=∞∋†≈ ≈†+;∂;≈⊥ ⊥∋+∋††∞†≈ †+ †+∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ +† 5∋+∋†+∞≈†+∋. 1≈ ++†+ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞≈, ∞=;†-⊇+;≈⊥ ;≈ ⊇∞≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ (∞.⊥. 4∋†∋≤+; 3:5, 4∋+∞∋ 3:1, ∞†≤.) ∋≈⊇ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈ ;≈ ∋⊇=+≤∋†∞⊇.

0+†+†∋†++[1835]&≈+≈⊥;, ++ †+∞ ⊇∞=+†;+≈ †+ ∋≈+ +†+∞+ 6+⊇ +∞† †+∞ 0+∞∋†++ ;≈ ∋+++++∞⊇ (∞.⊥.

8+≈∞∋ 2:18-19, 1∞+∞∋;∋+ 11:10, ∞†≤.), ∋≈⊇ †+∞∞ ⊇∞=+†;+≈ †+≠∋+⊇≈ †+;≈ 6+⊇ ;≈ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈∞⊇ ++ +;⊥+†∞+∞≈ ≤+≈⊇∞≤† ;≈ ≈⊥∞∞≤+, ∋≤†, ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈ †++∞⊥+† (∞.⊥. 8+≈∞∋ 6:6, 4;≤∋+ 6:6-8, ∞†≤). 4† †∞∋≈† †++∞∞ ∋∋+∂∞⊇ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ ⊇+ ∞≠;≈†, ++≠∞=∞+, +∞†≠∞∞≈ †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞†;≤ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞ +† 4+∞+∋ 4∋=⊇∋. 6;+≈††+, ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞†;≤ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞, †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋+∞, †++ †+∞ ∋+≈† ⊥∋+† †+∞ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +† 1≈+∋∞†, ≠++ ∋+∞ ∋⊇⊇+∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋≈ †+∞ ≤++≈∞≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ +† 6+⊇ ≠;†+ ≠++∋ 6+⊇ ∋∋⊇∞ ∋ ≤+=∞≈∋≈† (7+∞ 6;=∞ 3++∂≈ +† 4+≈∞≈, ∞≈⊥.

8∞∞†+++≈+∋+). 7+∞ {∞⊇⊥∋∞≈† †+∋† ;≈ ∋≈≈+∞≈≤∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞†≈ ;≈ ;≈ +∞≈⊥+≈≈∞ ≈+† {∞≈† †+ †+∞;+ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ∋++∋† †∋;†∞+∞, +∞† ;≈ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ †+∞;+ ∋++∋† ++†;⊥∋†;+≈ +∞††∞≤†∞⊇ ∞≈†∋;†+†∞†≈∞≈≈ ≤+≈≤∞+≈;≈⊥ †+∞;+ ≈;⊇∞ +† †+∞ ≤+=∞≈∋≈†. (4 ≈+†∋+†∞ ∞≠≤∞⊥†;+≈ +∞+∞ ;≈ †+∞ ⊥++⊥+∞† 1+≈∋+, ≠++≈∞ ∋;≈;≈†++ ≠∋≈ ⊇;+∞≤†∞⊇ †+ ≈+≈-1≈+∋∞†;†∞≈, †+∞ ≤;†;=∞≈≈ +† 4;≈;=∞+). 1† 1≈+∋∞† ≠∋≈ ≈+† ≠∋†∂;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ ⊥∋†+ +† +;⊥+†∞+∞≈≈∞≈≈, †+∞≈ †+∞+ ≠∞+∞ ≈+† ≠∋†∂;≈⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ≠∋+ †+∋† †+∞+ +∋⊇ ≤+∋∋;††∞⊇ †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ †+ ≠∋†∂ ;≈, ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈, {∞⊇⊥∋∞≈† ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈∞†† (≈∞∞, †++ ;≈≈†∋≈≤∞, 8∞∞. 5, 29, 8+≈. 1,2 .....


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