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Resistance against slavery: Nina Turner, The Underground Railroad

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Note: 1, 2015

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Ich rufe daher jeden auf, nach seinen Möglichkeiten Attentate, Sabotage und Unruhe zu verhindern und auch den kleinsten Hinweis, der zur Ergreifung der Schuldigen führen kann, der nächsten deutschen oder französischen Polizeidienstst­ell­e zu melden. Der Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer im Bereich des Militärbefehlsh­abe­rs in Frankreich̶­0; Diese Bekanntmachung wurde am 10. Juli 1942 im gesamten Norden Frankreichs, besonders aber in Paris, plakatiert. Der Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer im Bereich des Militärbefehlsh­abe­rs…

Resistance against slavery

Resistance from Slaves

  • Slave resistance was very common
  • At least 250 confirmed slave-riots until 1865
  • Only two successful riots, one in Haiti and one on the ship Amistad
  • Riot plans are often discovered before they even started
  • Riots were usually stopped with brutal violence
  • Other common types of resistance: Violence against slave Owners, Sabotage and escaping

Aboard the Amistad

  • The Amistad was a ship from a North American trading company
  • A trading ship, a slave ship
  • 53 slaves loaded
  • Succesfull riot at the 28.06.1839
  • The riot leader was Sangbe Pieh, a rice farmer from Africa
  • Africans did not know how to navigate

  • Commanded the crew to navigate the ship back to Africa
  • The crew fooled them and moved the ship to america
  • Ship was discovered by an American military ship
  • Long court process, called "Amistad Process"
  • Africans were spoken free and were brought back to Africa
  • Now has the name "Freedom Schooner"

Nat Turner

  • Nathaniel „Nat“ Turner: American slave
  • Led a slave rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton Country, Virginia on August 21, 1831
  • Resulted in 60 white deaths
  • As a small child: was thought to have some special talent  could describe things that happened before he was even born
  • Some even remarked that he „surely would be a prophet“

Turner was deeply religious  spent much of his time reading the Bible, praying and fasting

  • Turner was deeply religious  spent much of his time reading the Bible, praying and fasting
  • had a vision in 1825 of a bloody conflict between black and white spirits  hearing divine voices
  • received another sign  told him that he …
  • 1.should prepared himself

    2. slayed his enemies with their own weapons

  • About 55 white men, women and children died during Turner‘s rebellion

Faced off against a group of armed white men  near Jerusalem

  • Faced off against a group of armed white men  near Jerusalem
  • 100 to 200 African Americans were killed after rebellion
  • Turner  was captured on October 30, 1831
  •  said that this was not his fault

    „Rebellion was the work of God“

     was sentenced to death by hanging

  • Image: - evolved over the years
  • - signed as a hero and as a religious fanatic

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White people Against slavery

  • Not many people knew the evils of the slave trade
  • Those who did: faced abuse & violence
  • not all white people thought having and selling African slaves was good  are also called abolitionist
  • These people had a big and important impact on outlawing slavery in the US

Thomas Jefferson

  • Was also a slave owner
  • Later: tried to outlaw slavery
  • 1784: proposed federal legislation banning slavery, failed to pass by one vote
  • As President: made slavery a crime in 1807

Benjamin Franklin

  • Also owned slaves
  • Became opposed to institution, tried to outlaw slavery
  • 1785: became president of an abolitionist group in Pennsylvania, originally formed by the Quakers

John Brown

  • was an abolitionist
  • believed in armed insurrection against the institution of slavery
  • 1859: led an armed uprising in Harpers Ferry, to free slaves
  • executed for his attempted uprising

Abraham Lincoln

  • President of US during the American civil war
  • 1863: made the famous Emancipation Proclamation:
  • He declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.”
  • 1865: This proclamation was followed by the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution outlawing slavery.

Sojourner Truth

  • After going to court to recover her son, in 1828 she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man
  • In 1843 she gave herself the name Sojourner Truth
  • Her best-known speech was delivered extemporaneously, in 1851, at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio
  • The speech became widely known during the Civil War by the title "Ain't I a Woman?

  • was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist
  • Born in 1797 as Isabella Baumfree into slavery in Swartekill (New York)
  • Escaped with her daughter into freedom in 1826

It was a project she pursued for seven years, but without success

  • She died in November 26 1883
  • The Underground Railroad

    • Network of secret routes and houses
    • Used by enslaved people to escape from slavery
    • Abolitionists aided to escape
    • The routes led to Canada and free Sates
    • Founded in 1780 and retained till 1862
    • 1850: 100.000 people escaped via the “Railroad”
    • British-North-America (Canada) was a popular destination
    • Most slaves settled in Ontario

    • Conductors (local leaders) led the fugitives from one station to the other
    • Sometimes conductors pretended to be a slave to enter a plantation
    • Slaves traveled at night and 15-30 km to each station
    • The stations were located in barns, under church floors, in caves, etc.
    • The slaves mostly traveled on foot in groups of 1-3 slaves

    Charles Turner Torrey

    Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman

    • was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian
    • She was born as Armanita Ross In 1822 in Dorchester County
    • Born a slave she was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child
    • She suffered a traumatic head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave and hit her instead
    • In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family
    • she brought relatives with her out
    • When a far-reaching United States Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850, she helped guide fugitives further north into Canada, and helped newly freed slaves find work. of the state

    • When the US Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy
    • The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than seven hundred slaves
    •  After the war, she retired to the family home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents.
    • She was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her and she had to be admitted to a home for elderly African-Americans that she had helped to establish years earlier.

    The End

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