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Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - KFU

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Brandt Stefan, 2017

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Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the united states of America. He was born in the year 1809 in a small one-roomed log cabin. As his family was rather poor, he received very little formal school education as a child. But because the boy was very interested in learning and books, he self taught himself most of what he knew. As a young man, Abraham had a variety of different jobs, until he decided to run for president. After he had won the election in the year 1860, he achieved a number of things as the president of the united…
As models, symbols An awkward question lurks for academic historians: Why is it hat just when black and brown peoples all over the globe get their own nations, the Western profession of academic history decides “nations” have no longer right to talk about When “nation” meant “white” our task as historians was to write national histories When “nation” means lots of things, we have suddenly begun to hunt for something else to write about  it was not white anymore, became black and so on. When thinking about if and how the civil rights legislation…

Imperialism and Ideology – Becoming a World Power

Manifest destiny, 19th century America became world power, 1780 US was founded, since then it became bigger and bigger, 1820s The Monroe Doctrine: Policy of mutual non-interferance between America and European nations (1823), dont colonize land in North or South America!, Aim Keep European Nations from gaining Control in any part of America, named after JAMES MONROE, Democratic-Republican, 5th president of US, Founding Father,

Imperalism and Wetward Movement, everything west of Appalachain Mountains, lots of different Tribes of the Indian Nation, US Policy towards native Americans Indian wars, 1830s Indian removal act, Andrew Jackson, Indians;Native Americans had to leave homegrounds and were forced to go into Reservation camps, 1827 the Indian tribe Cherokee declared themselves a sovereign Nation, independant Nation for short while, had constitution, government, laws, law suit from 1831; John Ross (principal Chief of Cherokee), Cherokee were expelled westward, Cherokee was part of 5 Civilized Tribes, still the smallest tribe, 563 native american tribes today in us!,

series of forced relocations of Native Americans in the USA following the Indian Removal Act in 1831 The Trail of Tears!, 60000 Natives died, native americans also had african-american, black slaves!

New US Imperalism (expand sphere without any regard of other nations), began in 1890s, THEODORE „TEDDY“ ROOSEVELT is leading figure in the new imperalism, Republican, in Charge of Department of Navy, start of spanish-american war, ROUGH RIDERS, he was national Icon, became Governor of New York, became US vice president after McKinely shot, US president from 1901-1909,

  • Hawaii, important economic Position in transcontinental trade route; Pacific, stop for merchant vessels, was considered independant and sovereign Nation, 1893 queen was overthrown in a coup d´état „comittee of safety“, US Marines were involved, Hawaii Comes under US protection, Grover Cleveland was President, Democrat, was opposed to Intervention in Hawaii, 1897: President William McKinely, Republican, strongly Imperialist, signed „Newland Resolution“ led to Annexation of Hawai US protectorate, Hawaii became 50th US state in 1959

  • Cuba, spanish colony for a long time, also retained Close economic Relations to the USA, sugarcane plantations, Cuban nationalists declare Independence, war with spain, General Weyler (The Butcher) puts down resistance, 1898 US sent warship Maine to Cuba, havana, ship explodes Spanish – American War 1898, US Jingoism war enthusiasm, agressive nationalism, Puerto Rico was annexaded in 1898, US protectorate,

  • Philippines, Insurrection against Spanish colonizerd 1896.1897, leader called US for help, considering them allies, Treaty of Paris End of Spanish-American War, USA buy Philippines, Puerto and Guana become US protectorates, Cuba becomes Independent, Philippine-American War, 1899,

Boxer Rebellion, China, Nationalist and anti-foreignist uprising, organized by secret Society „RIghteous and Harmonious Fists“ killed foreigns Eight Nation Alliance, Troops to China to Control Country, USA gained Access to market in China

Construction of the Panama Canal, US treaty with Panama, build in 1903-1914, 80 km Connection Pacific and Atlantic Ocean,

Main Reasons of US Rise to World Power:

New Imperialism Worldwide also in Britain, other countries, Military competition between world wars, Building up of new Navy, Roosevelt was in Charge of Navy,

World War 1: 1914-1918, USA become involved from 1917 to 1918, Woodrow Wilson President, Democrat (were conservative, wanted to Keep slavery), „War should bring Democracy and Reform to the world“, 1920, economic boom, 1929 great Depression, stock market Crash, Black Tuesday!, unemployment, worldwide economic Depression, 1930s: The Red Decade, President 1933 Franklin Deland Roosevelt (FDR), Democrat, achievement: „The New Deal“ progran to restoreUS economy, the three R s: R.....[read full text]

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Domesticity, Sexuality, Consumer Culture

! Betty Boop (Cartoon figure, 1930!)

Clinton 2.7 million more, populat vote, narrow victories for Trump in „Rust Belt“ Northern East, car factories, coal industry, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin Jill Stein (collected Money, Green Party, presidential nominee, petitioned a Recount! In the states that Trump won in the Rust Belt)

Gender Issues

19th century, Images The Vicotrian Mother; woman going to church, taking care of husband; elegant, The Suffregist; fightig for Wahlrecht;hard; cold woman,

70 percent of females were employed as Servants (also in Offices, classrooms, ) only 20 percent of women worked in professional Jobs in 1900, Education women werent admitted in uni,

Turn of century Picture, woman reading newspaper, man ironing, „Reversed Roles“, „The new Woman“, demand more rights, voting, Queer Subcultures in Urban Areas, Chicago, New York, Centres of Queer Subculture,

Roaring 1920s, African American Music spread, -> Jazz Age, started in New Orleans, Cultural Centre Harlem, „Harlem Rennaissance“ NYC, ended with outbreak of Great Depression, Bessie Smith, highest paid African American Performer, Duke Ellington, most popular medium in 20,30,40s Radio, first Commercial Radio Station KDKA, Radio became mass medium, Pittsburgh, 40 million Radios in 1947 in US, 1920s THE PROHIBITION ERA, national ban on alcohol 1920-1933, „The Noble Experiment“, because alcohol is not a good Thing, alcoholic abuse, to Keep People from doing bad Things, drunk, agressive, initiated by a number of conservative Groups, Womans Christian temperance Union, led to increased criminal activity, smuggle alcohol, led to „Speakeasy-Clubs“, bars where you could drink alcohol, wasnt legal, needed codeword, 30000 such Clubs in NYC!, shift in Gender Roles, „The Flapper“ new woman, boyish hair, Party Girl, emanzipated, dominated the media, women saw opportunity to become more confident through becoming flapper,

Conservative Backlash after 1945, women were in workforce because of war, women would go back to household, man back to work, „The Cult of Domesticity“, women household, Family,! Betty Crocker 1950s second (after Elenor Roosevelt) best known woman, associated with COOKING!!, fictional character, symbolized perfect american housewife, main Task teach American women to bake the perfect cake, later personified by Adelaine Cumming, Cook Book, dominant ideal for women was housewife and mother stayed at home, was all about husband, statistics on marriage in 1950 average age 22,8 males, 20,3 years women,

Socio-Cultural Background move from big cities to Suburbs „Suburbanization“, Levittown Mass-produced Suburbia, first NYC surrounding, William Levitt Father of Modern Suburbia, Planned Community, „White Flight“ White People flee from big citiesto suburbian regions, be among Whites, ethn.....

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1953 Sex culture started, Playboy Magazine, marilyn monroe, commited suicide, was „every mans love affair with america“, Bombshell/Sex Bomb, combination Sexuality and Innosence,

The Hays Code founded by Republican Will Hays, Motion Picture production Code, regulated what could be shown in films, no nakedness and sexuality, no violence and crime, no drug use, no criticism of marriage, MPAA Film Rating System since 1968 (Hays Code over), voluntary scheme not inforced by law, „The Seven Year Itch“ movie with Marilyn Monroe, showed adultery, „abscenity“ bathtub Scene, Music was censored as well Elvis Presley, King of Rock and Roll, Elvis the Pelvis, mostly shown from his hips upwards, Icon of Youth Protest, Ethniticity, played Music of „black“ People,

Civil rights movements since 1840s

American Civil War: 1861 – 1865!!!, North (Rich) against South (Slaves), ended with 13th Amendment to US Constitution, Slavery shall not exist anymore, illegal, not really in real life, era after civil war: The Reconstruction Era (1865-1880s), marked by racist Sentiment and restistace to equal rights for African Americans, Pictures Harpers Weekly „Peace, Right“ in the Background, Blacks are fighting, chaos; African American as a violent Person, disturbing peace“, Militant resistance from Whites, The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) founded 1865, aiming at killing African Americans, rightwing organization, „purification of american Society“, 4.5 mio members, still existant,

Court Case 1896, backlash against civil rights, Plessy vs. Ferguson, African American black shoemaker (1/8 black, 7/8 white), was forbidden to board Louisiana railroad wagon for Whites, he sued the state, Supreme Court descision demanded „seperate but equal“ conditions, Segregation in public places, Image black man drinking from water for blacks, period 1890s – 1920s Period of Reform; The Progressive Era, Politics Theodore Roosevelt (Teddy, social Reformer, environmentalist) Jane Addams, Main Goals

  • Environmentalism: Preservation of natural resources, protection of Environment, first national park in the world Yellowstone National Park 1872, beginning of awareness to protect Environment, 1890s parks founded Yosemite National Park, US President Teddy Roosevelt, under Roosevelt 128 mio Acres of forest were set aside, several national parks founded, wildlife sancturies, related movement 70 years later green movement, global movement, 1960/70s, think globally; act locally!!!, annual earth day (April 22), first in 1970, Support for environmental protection, worldwide green movement, 335.000 members in US, 2.9 mio votes in 2000 U.....

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Board of Education, Supreme court, outlawed Segregation in public Schools, daughter had to wald Long way to black School, White School right there, sued the state, School Segregation banned, not equal, all Schools had to be mixed, political consequences, desegregation of uni and Schools, „Little Rock Nine“ students at segregated Little Rock High School 1957, threads of lynching against black students, Eisenhower sent US Army troops, Rosa Parks refused to give up seat for White People, was arrested, 1955, guilty of violating Segregation law, triggered a protest, NAACP Montgomery Bus Boycott, didnt use buses, 381 days, 1955-1956, bus Company gave in, most important figure Martin Luther King Jr. (1928-1968), put in Jail, leader of Civil RIghts Movement, based on Ghandi, non violent resistance, Famous March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom 1963, famous spreech „I have a dream“ „all men are created equal“, Black Power Malcolm X African American Muslim Minister and civil rights activist, „Black Panther“, 1966, left wing, do more than just talk and protest, aim: protecting black neighbourhoods from Police brutality, 2014 Ferguson, black Teenager Michael Brown was killed by Police officer, not guilty, racism, ymbol of the Black Power movement: clenched Fist; raised fist, Public Scandal, 1968, two black runners made that Symbol, Tommie Smith and …, Us National Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, since 1931, before that „Hail Columbia“ (before), Other Civil Rights Movements League of United Latin American CItizens LULAC, 1929 founded, National COngress of American Indians, Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement, 1950 founded, Mattachine Society; Daughters of Biits, Event that triggered Gay Rights Movement: Stonewall Right, public uproar against violent Police raid against gay bar, Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, Stonewall Uprising, Gay Liberation Front 1969,

Progress and Technology

John Gast, American Progress Picture

Electric Telegraph (developed in 1830s, patented by Morse in 1840) first Long distance telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore, „What hath God wrought“, Speedy Transmission of News, journalistic purposes, Background: Industrialization,

Industrial Revolution: Development of new processes of manufacturing, spreading of new Technologies, in USA: 1820s, UK: 1760s, American Industrial Revolution, Economic Growth in the US since 1820, American System of free Enterprise, Individuals could acquite Capital and decide how to use it, Low taxes (incentive for entrepreneurs to invest), Limitation of liability for Investors (if bankrupt, would lose Money, not be responsible for companys debt), most dramatic Invention in 1876 Invention of the Telephone „COme here Watson I want you“, Alexander Graham Bell, 1904 over 3 mio. phones connected in USA, 1914: America world leader in telephone density, other Inventions in 1870/80s Thomas Alva Edison!! Phonograph 1877, Perfection of the Lightbulb 1879, Electric Generator 1879, Electric power came to New York customers 1882, Arc lighting of Broadway 1880, Lamp Systems in Philadelphia, Baltimore,… 1880s,

Photography and Film, Birth of photography in Europe, Earliest Photograph: View from the Window at Le Gras, 1826, took 8 hours to develop, DaGuerrotype Abraham Lincoln!!, Republican, first successful photographic Progress, 1837, on silvered copper plate, Niagara Falls First Photograph of american Thing, 1855, became mass medium during the civil war, 1861-65!, Photo from Matthew Brady, from civil war, enhance the credibility of written Reports, Impression of authenticity, accuracy of Events, 1870s Film, Galloping Horse, Eadweard Muybridge (pioneer of moving Images, english photographer working in US, added Pictures to create movies, no Commercial Background, was famous for „Animal Locomotion“, Male asscending stairs, often photographed humans, real animals: Buffalo galopping) , first Motion Picture ever, similar to flipbook, Early US Cinema 1890s, Kinetoscope and Kinetograph are patented by Thomas Alva Edison, movie production Studio was called Black Maria, New Jersey, Commercial Motion Pictures produced since mid 90s, Boxing Cats, under 1 minute Long, 1900 average film was 4-6 minutes, Enoch Arden „longer film“, The Rise of Film first nickelodeon in Pittsburgh, 1907, 8000 nickelodeons, 1910: 26 mio Viewers per week, Vitagraph was first Major film Company, New York, David Wark Griffith: Director and pioneer of american film, The Birth of a Nation pionnering film, „DW Griffith invented the grammar of film-making“, 190 minutes Long, 1915, Technical Innovations in the birth of a Nation: the Close Up, Variation of Camera Angle, Cross-Cutting, The Birth of the Star, Florence Turner was one of first stars, „Vitagraph Girl“, Theda Bara aka „Arab Death“, anagram, letters in different order, daughter of French Artist and arabian Mistress, smoked a lot, gave interviews in her Boudoir, Cleopatra!, The Academy Awards The Oscar, first mentioned in 1934, organized by Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, First ceremony in May, 1929, Private dinner, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel to honor the best films, only ceremony that was never broadcast on tv or Radio, Emil Jannings first Person to win Oscar, german-austrian, for The Last Command, Charlie Chaplin, ., first Sound film The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, First words ever „Wait a Minute, wait a Minute, you aint heard nothing yet,…“, The Hollywood Studio System, Golden Age of Hollywood Cinema, 1920-40s, Production, Distribution and Exhibition is in the same Handy, Film companies that dominated: Fox, MGM, Paramount, RKO, Warner Brother, Universial Picture, Columbia Pictures, United Artists, Mary Pickford, DW Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks United Artists, Independence from Commercial Studios, challenged by anti-trust laws by government in late 1940s, second largest Studio System that has survived: Warner Bros. Duck, largest SONY Pictures Enterta.....

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Cultures of protest


1950-2017

after ww2, the beat generation, group of intellectuals, writers, bohemian upper class rebellion, 1950, centres new york, san francisco, contempt for the rules of established society, search for blissful illumination, drugs, beat writers : jack kerouac, influenced by bebop jazz, buddhism, works: on the road, ., william s burroughs, naked lunch, obsessions:themes: sex, drugs, jazz, eastern religions, buddhism, zen buddhism, music as form of protest: combination of four music styles, blues, country music, gospel, rhythm, boogiewoogie, uptempo, fast, backbeatdriven rhythm, controversial, was banned in 1956, provocative, genre of rock and roll --> elvis presley, drug use, rebellious attitude, gasstation fight, was charged, sent to jail for one day, rebellion against older generation, little richard rocknroll musician, black, enfant terrible of rocknroll, tutti frutti song, jerry lee lewis, bad boy of rnr, great balls of fire song, 1980s protest music: rap and hip hop, can be traced to afican roots, oldschool rap, Run - D M C!!! new york based hip hop group 1982-2002!!!, public enemy, hiphop group from newyork, anti establishment, gangsta rap 1990-today, eminem: slim shady; marshall mathers, 

1950s, high grade of juvenile delinquency, criminality among teens, mainly in cities of the us, young people in jail, phenomenon exploided in the press, film about juvenile delinquency --> blackboard jungle, teacher at a bronx high school, new york, he is mobbed by teens, terrorize him, threaten his life, criminal gang, soundtrack of film - rock around the clock, !! one two three o clock four o clock ROCK!!!, icons of teenage rebellion, 1950s, james dean, us american actor, car accident-->  died young, method acting, icon of juvenile rebellion, appeared in only three films, east of eden -->he looks desperate, helpless, conflict between young man and his environment, misunderstood, rebel without a cause --> bad boy from a good family, upper class people rebelling against their environment, giant --> postcard, he in his car, about oil diggers who became rich, sense of desperation as a young, james dean is the original hipster, rebel against social and sexual norms, jazz afficionado, rejection of conventional rhythm, unconventional, uses cannabis, other drugs to expand .....

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1960-1980s presidents, 1963-1969, lyndon b johnson, civil rights act, endorsed the vietnam war, democrat, 1969-1974, richard nixon, watergate affair; put bugs in a hotel room of democrate party, spied democrats, tried to scar off soviet union, visited china, made in china,  resigned from office under public pressure, republican, quaker religion, middle name 'M' Milhous, 1974-1977, gerald ford, pardon of nixon, was vice under nixon, republican, 1977-1981, jimmy carter, iran hostage crisis, democrate, nobel peace prize in 2002, opposition to death penalty, 

protest movements since 2000s, occupy wall street, protest movement in new yorks zuccotti park in 2011, protest against upper class society who dont care about normal people, against capitalism, beginning od occupy movements, protest against social and economic inequality, 'we are the 99%', main slogan, 1% the richest, citicism of the unequal distribution of wealth, occupy democrats, sub movement, transform democratic party, right wing protest movements --> tea party movement, branch in republican party, boston tea party, rebelling aginst high taxes, conservative, emerged in 2008, demanded less taxes and less government spending, less money to the poor, no to obama care, rejection of health care reform, icons of the tea party --> ted cruz, sarah palin, was vice presidential candidate, michelle bachmann, member of house of representatives, left wing movement to the tea party, coffee party, progressive, icon --> bernie sanders, democratic socialist, ran for us president, us senator for vermont, motto for the presidential campaign , "feel the bern", 

other social movements in 2000s, .....


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