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British Culture: Mitschrift (Skript)

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Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - KFU

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2,2016

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Text by Luciano K. ©
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Coketown In the novel „hard times“ published in 1854 Charles Dickens describes his experiences of the inhuman working conditions Industrialism had created and the detrimental effects it was having on the environment in the English industrial revolution, by taking the example of Coketown a fictitious industrial city in the North of 19th century England. The given extract contains a detailed description of Coketowns urban image, living conditions and the mind-set of its inhabitants. Shaped by the industrial revolution and its…
British Culture: Mitschrift (Skript)

Tudor Culture

Gothic style remained longer in Britain

Reformation – end to Church Building -> Secular buildings

Hampton Court Palace (old part) – Tudor kings, queens, Henry Viii – Elisabeth I

Richmond, White Hall - all close to the river – river safest for travel

St- George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle – Tudor arch

Tudor architecture – half-timbered (double-jettied) houses

Italy – painters

Not in England - first after Rafael’s dead

By a German – Hans Holbein – first paintings in England

Dutch – Anthony Van Dyke – portraits – scarce – because of Reformation

Miniature Painting – flourished in England – Nicholas Hilliard

Sir Walter Raleigh – explorer

Pose of the Melancholy Man

Coronation portrait, Ermine Portrait (ermine – royal animal)-> Elisabeth I

Poetry:

Until 1754 – England had a Julian Calendar (ten day behind our Gregorian)

Music: Henry Purcell,

Edward Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Ralph Voughan Williams (20th Century)

Consorts – family of the same group

Songs accompanied by lute: John Dowland

Vocal – acapella

Motets – short pieces of sacred choral music: Thomas Tallis, William Byrd, John Bull

Madrigals: Byrd, Thomas, Morley

Virginal – instrument, early keyboard, strings parallel to the keyboard pulled by a thorn (spinet),

Preferably played by young women

Elisabeth

26 when came to the throne

Being suspected in plots against Mary

Peace and stability

William Cecil, Lord Burleigh – her ‘right hand’

Golden Age’

Edward Spencer – The Fairy Queen

Reality: serious economic, problems, catholic unrest, 1570 excommunicated from the church

Mary, Queen of Scots – distant cousin, heir to the England throne in case Elisabeth has no children

Married to king of France – alliance – threat by the English

When French King died Mary returned, religious reformation (Scotland) -> John Knox – the Kirk:

-Presbyterianism – Elders (Presbyta)

Mary – accused of murdering her second husband

Elisabeth signed the death penalty – Mary in a red dress (Catholic Martyrs) executed

Westminster – buried opposite of each other

The execution worsened the relations with Spain (Catholic)

Sir Francis Drake – attacked, plundered Spanish ships, encouraged, tolerated by Elisabeth

Colony – Jamestown, Virginia

Elisabeth supported the rebellion against Spain on the continent – the Low Countries (Netherlands)


Philip II. of Spain – Crusade to England, support from the Pope

130 warships, 1588 sailed to England

England – won the battle; English ships were much smaller, could manoeuvre easier, Flag of St. George, fire power superior to the enemy, English send burning ships among the Spanish battleships, havoc

Routes of the Spanish Armada 1588- around Scotland

1588!

Britain as a major naval power in EU, World until WWII, England as a colonial power

1599 – East India Company – monopoly of trade with east India, trading posts on the Indian Subcontinent – important for later English Empire

Elisabeth became a legend, The Armada Portrait

Before 1588 – many wanted to marry her – contracts; remained unmarried, virgin queen, painted her face white – virginity, substitute for Virgin Mary

Became an icon of the nation – The Rainbow Portrait (attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts) symbolic meaning -> inscription non sine sole Iris – no rainbow without the sun, she brings peace after war

Left sleeve – snake wisdom, cunning, cleverness that guarantee peace, prosperity, heart shaped ruby in her mouth – wisdom over passion, she knows her duty, wisely govern the people

Dress – eyes and ears, hears and sees all, knows all

Glove – sign of devotion to the knight, they love to serve her

Elisabeth I – spoke French, Latin, .....[read full text]

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Liked portraits on horseback

Assembled the greatest art collection – Inigo Jones (also architect)– masks – Puritans saw them as ‘dirty?’ – Surveyor of the King’s Works

Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace by Inigo Jones (Palladian Style – Renaissance with a delay, imitation of Antiquity) – Peter Paul Rubens – apotheosis of James

The Wilton Diptych

James raised in Calvinist times

Charles – Catholic leaning (married to a Catholic, Antonieta)

William Laud (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Charles – conflict with parliament (radical Protestants)

Petition of Right (1628) (important for the later constitution) – Charles had to sing the document

-No to taxation without parliament consent (MOODLE)

NO – lack of enforcement of habeas corpus – ‘you shall/ have a body in court’ – a person that is arrested has to be brought to trial as soon as possible and not let him rot in prison

No forced billeting of troops – if the king raises an army – ‘you must feed them, host, accommodate’ –NO

1629 – Charles decided to rule without parliament for 11 years – Years of Personal Rule

1640 – had to call in parliament – rebellion in Scotland – Calvinists against king – money – taxation – parliament – dismissed parliament – eventually civil war 1642

England was not involved in the war that devastated the continent (13 years War 1635-1648)

Merchants richer

Landless poverty quarter of the population – settlement to America

Mayflower – Pilgrims to Massachusetts, Plymouth


The Tichborne Dole – festival


CIVIL WAR

Power / religious war

Puritans (parliament) – saw themselves as God’s accessory

Royalist Cavaliers vs. Parliamentarian Roundheads

Prince Rupert of the Rhine vs. Oliver Cromwell

Divided families

Battles:

Marston Moor (1643)

Naseby (1645)

New Model Army

King executed on 30 January 1649 - first English king to be publicly executed

England (Britain) now a Republic – Wales, Scotland, Ireland – part of the republic – Cromwell

Cromwell hated in Ireland – quenched the rebellion in Ireland

Commonwealth of England (all included)

Cromwell – declared himself Lord Protector – lacked civilian support

Quakers – the society of friends

Quakers – quake before the power of god

Denied civil authority

Persecuted after restauration after 1660

George Fox (created Quakers)

William Penn founded Pennsylvania

1658 – Cromwell died

Charles II of England (1660 – 1685) – Restauration

Reopening of theatres …

Charles II – related to his people, charming, easy-going, womanizer, … not the Puritan ideal

Charles lived before the throne in exile in France – Louis XIV if France – I am the state

Decenters –Non conformists

Parliament now dominated by Anglicanism

Clarian Code

Catholic, decenters could not hold public office, attend university – acts

Economy – Eland – largest merchant fleet in EU

Colonies – goods, raw materials – then processed in England (manufactured) re-exported to Europe and colonies

Consumer society

War against the Dutch

1665 – Great Plague of London .....

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Isaac Newton – Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (1687) – one of foundation texts of mother physics, laws of gravity

Politics

Political parties – Party System

Royalist Cavaliers -> Tories (Irish Catholic Bandits – Conservative Party)

Parliamentarians/Roundheads – Whigs (Scottish Protestants ‘whiggamaire’ horse- driver, Liberal party)

British Culture, 09.05.2016

The 18th Century

Wars in Europe, Britain world power

Party system with the Prime Minister as the leading political figure

Industrial revolution / ‘agricultural revolution’ / revolution of transport

Secular society – worldly pleasure and arts

Mary’s sister => Queen Anne -1702-1714 alliance against France – expansion policy

Wars against France:

9 years war (1688-1697)

War of the Spanish succession (1701 – 1713)

War started because: Spain Charles II died, French wanted power

France vs English – in Canada – Queen Ann’s War – John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough – Blindheim (eng Blenheim) Southern Germany – Churchill’s profits – Blenheim Palace (Woodstock/Oxfordshire)

Prince Eugene of Savoy (Churchill’s commander) – built Belvedere

Peace – Treaty of Utrecht 1713 – Britain gained land in Canada (map on slides), gains in the Caribbean, also Gibraltar -> British empire rose, people aware – newspapers (important medium)


1765 – 7 years’ war against France – started with Fredrick II the Great of Prussia (map on slide) – not only on the continent but in North AM, Caribbean, important colonial markets, 1760’s 40% English products exported to colonies, vital for economy, imports: timber (North America) for ships, coffee, tobacco, sugar (Caribbean) – plantation worked by slaves from Africa – Britain got ALL the French land in Canada – Quebec, Maritines – ‘ethnic cleansing’ went to the South (French and Indian War – .....

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The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis in Yorktown 1781 – French supported the American militaries

Internal Politics

Glorious Revolution 1688 – no blood shared

Wigs – Protestant vs Tories – House of Stuart Catholic, De-centres

Press, political debate in coffee houses

Civil service, new department – customs, post office, naval office

Commercial dominance – merchant fleet

1692 – Bank of England founded

Gap between rich and poor widened

Society obsessed with property

Act of Union 1707 – between parliaments between England and Scotland – parliament of GB with Scottish representatives – Great Britain ‘emerged’

Scottish nationalism (Scottish parliament 2000)

House of Hanover – German – first was George I., Elector of Hanover, spoke no English, alliance with the Wigs (first to do so)

Robert Walpole – major political figure – first prime minister 1721 ‘the time of the Robinocracy’. Networking, management, ability to manipulate parliament through friends and family

The Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 & 1745 – supporters of the Stuarts (James ‘Jacob’) – Tories party of the Landowners, Wigs- business, trade

Several plots supported by France, James Francis Edward Stuart – The Old Pretender (claims the throne is his)

.....

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Sophisticated social life – gatherings at concerts, halls, theatres, cafes

St. James’ Park, Vauxhall Gardens, the Chinese House & the Company in Masquerade in Ranelagh Gardens – Chinoiserie

Natural beauty of England – countryhouses, fox hunting,

joys of family life – conversation pieces (painting) –George Romney

Leisure classes

Housing overcrowded, lack of sanitation, chucking garbage out of the windows on the street, stench, not washing daily, upper classes used perfume, noise, diseases, high infant mortality – ¼ children lived to become an adult, theft – severely punished – hanged for stealing a silver handkerchief, hangings as entertainment – Tyburn, fashionable people went to watch people in asylums

Purchase of land – houses with landscape parks; foxhunting

George Stubbs – painting rich people on horses, horseracing


Georgian Country Houses

Amphibian culture – aristocracy lived in town houses in winter and in the summer in the countryside

‘to go to London for the season’ – for winter

No nobility in courts, -> ministers

The Grand Tour – tour of continental Europe – Paris, via Alps, Italy – Rome, Florence, Venice, then Switzerland, southern Germany, Netherlands; educational trip; gentlemen returned with loose morals and ‘stds’, once in a lifetime, then they went to spas

Spa .....

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Education still private – those who could afford it

Sunday schools

Schools were controlled by the church – not for de-centers – founded their own schools – taught natural sciences

Only for men – drinking, sodomy (at university), those who wanted to study seriously went to Scotland – more progressive – natural science

England – no medicine, English

Edinburgh – the Athens of the North – Old Town – Medieval part; New Town – in the 18th century


Shift in Sensibilities – from rational to sensitive – Neo-Classicism

Writers looked to classical antiquity it ended as the era of Romanticism – looked into their own national history – folk poetry, ballads

Emphasis on emotion, feeling


1700 1800

Wit – follow models imagination

Understanding sentiment feeling

Taste – poetry, literature, follows rules Intuition

Learning Originality, genius

Society – poets in intellectual circles individual – alone in nature

City – literature urban country – detested the crowd

Regular beauty the sublime

Classical antiquity the middle ages


The Age of Reason – The Age of Sentiment

Kant – use your understanding, in continental Europe – reformation, Protestants forced to leave (Germany)

Counter to emphasis on reason – counterpart – cult of the sentimental, fe.....

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