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Final thesis
Environmental Sciences

University, School

Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - KFU

Grade, Teacher, Year

Bednar-Friedl 2011

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Text by Auguste F. ©
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As the example of Nelson shows the inhibition threshold of children to acts of violence goes down. The Young nowadays clearly show more readiness to use force. Extreme examples for this are the many terrible news-stories about the massacres committed by the young in American Schools. 8. Little known facts “The Simpsons” has been winning 86 awards so far, amongst others 23 Emmy Awards und 22 Annie Awards. Since January the 14th 2000 it even has its own star on the “Hollywood Walk of Fame”. About 300 characters have been drawn for the sitcom…

Besides, I detected the next figure which shows a comparison between the International Energy Agency and the US Energy Information Agency including some other studies between energy efficiency with renewable and status quo if things continue like this.

Figure 7: Natural Gas consumption in Europe in Billion per unit volume,(Der_Erdgasbedarf_der_EU_11_05_1__ks.pdf, p. 4, 30.04.2011).


But one thing is certain; gas is becoming more and more. This increase includes more and more constructions of pipel and the transport of gas through pipel. But we must consider what the environmental risks of pipel are, and to ask if they are as “clean” as claimed from most of the gas industry companies.

4.3.1 Environmental risks of pipel

The most important question is: Are there risks for nature and wildlife? In this chapter I will consider the environmental risks linked with conducting oil and gas. We have to ask ourselves what risk there are when developing, exploring and transporting oil and gas. Large scale on- and offshore projects in question with oil and gas production certainly poses a risk to our future.

I am referring to large quantities of emission into the atmosphere, the sea and into the whole environment.

Let’s consider this: According to the estimates of environmental risk posed by oil spills in theBarents Sea, carried out by the scientific research centre “Informatikariska”, the sum of total possible influence of individual projects exposes water up to 100.000km² and coastline in excess of 4000 km to the risk of pollution.

(“The shelf does not need oil spills”, January 2006, p. 2, ilearchive/fil_Chapter_3._Environmental_risks_when_extracting_and_exporting_oil_and_gas.pdf, 30.04.11) Although there are strict laws against environmental risks there will always be -as in certain in western countries- companies who kno.....[read full text]

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The World Bank estimates that over 150 billion cubic meters (i.e. 5.3 trillioncubic feet) of natural gas are being flared and vented annually. That isequivalent to 25% of the United States’ gas consumption or 30% of the European Union’s gas consumption. And the annual 40 bcm (i.e. 1.4trillion cubic feet) of gas flared just in Africa is equivalent to half of the whole continent’s power consumption.

Flaring gas has also a global impact on climate change by adding about 400million tons of CO2 in annual emissions. This is more than the potential yearlyemission reductions from projects currently submitted under the Kyotomechanisms(World Bank, Towards a world free of flares, bank .org/EXTGG FR/Resources/GGFRbrochure%28updatedNov08%29.pdf?resourceurlname=GGFRbrochure%28updatedNov08%29.pdf, 05.01.2011) Therefore most of the peopledon´t know how much the impact of oil and gas is and which dramatic consequencesfor the future this will have, on fauna, flora, humans and nature.

The following figure shows the incredible exposures in Europe and how closely involved the whole continent is.

Figure 8: The World of pipel, Zeit-Online, Die Welt der Pipel, Zeit-Online,( , 01.05.2011).


It does not really matter which pipeline in which region there is and what unbelievable consequences for human and nature this implies, but the point at issue is: Are there any possibilities and chances for the future? In the following chapter I am going to have a closer look at the alternatives for transporting gas and oil as well as examining the current situation regarding transportation possibilities.

4.3.2 .....

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Statistics show that the transport of oil by tanker is as risky as pumping oil through underwater pipel.(ibid) The international Marine Organization designates following causes of large scale oil spills - involving transportation by tankers:

  • technical failure
  • grounding
  • collisions

Fires and explosions. (chapter 3, Environmental risks when extracting and exporting oil and gas, P 5, environmental+risks, 30.04.2011).

We can therefore conclude that transporting oil and gas in vessels and/or tankers are neither sustainable nor 100% save whatsoever. So, the alternative of the transportation of oil and gas by pipel and tankers is the conveyance of oil or gas by trains. Rail transportation derives from the industrial era, playing a major role in the economic development of Western Europe, North America and Japan.

It represented a major improvement in the movement of cargo over land-technology and has obviously introduced important changes in the movement of freight and passengers.(Rail Transportation and Rail L, /eng/ch3en/conc3en/ch3c3en.html, 01.05.2011). Furthermore, gas transported on railways its common in our time which does not mean that accidents and human failures on railways cannot be precluded.

The transport of oil and gas by rail in tank wagons is on no account more reliable than the corresponding transportation via pipel or tankers. The following reasons for accidents and incidents have been identified resulting in the leaking of petroleum products and crude oil from railway tank wagons.(cf. chapter 3, Environmental risks when extracting and exporting oil and gas, P 6, _search?query%3Austring%3Autf8=environmental+risks, 03.04.2011).

  • infringements of regulations concerned with handling dangerous loads
  • human error and bad management.
  • Derailments- as a result of unfavorable natural climatic conditions
  • train collisions
  • mechanical impact on the train
  • collapsing bridges

sparking, with the subsequent ignition of the contents of the wagons (ibid)(cf. chapter 3, Environmental risks when extracting and exporting oil and gas,P6, 03.04.2011).

The consequences such incidents can have - posed by this sort of transportation - range from relatively harmless contretemps to environmental disasters for humans and the ecosystem. My conclusion is therefore that there is no way of truly environmentally friendly transporting for oil and gas,from the vantage point of th.....

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Periodically since the dawn of the “mineral oil” era in nineteenth century, there have been warnings of the impending peak and consequential decline of oil productions. (World Energy Trends, Dr. Robert Skinner, Oxford Instiute of Energy Studies, P 56, 01.05.2011).

There are numerous organizations and institutions who deal with the future prospects of fossil fuels, all agreeing on the major role Russia will take on in the future, especially regarding natural gas and oil resources.

More than a quarter of oil and gassupplied to the EU comes from Russia as well as the country holding 20% of the whole natural gas reserves in the country. (World Energy Trends, Dr. Robert Skinner, Oxford Instiute of Energy Studies,P 60-61, .pdf, 01.05.2011).

Russia is amajor supplier of raw energy materials and therefore holds an important position in the European market for services and production.According to the Danish liberal, AnneJensen“Russia is as much dependent on the EU as the EU ison Russia”. She suggests that the prospects of Russiajoining the WTO will entice the country to sign theEnergy Charter.

(Transporting oil and gas in Northwest Russia, fil_Chapter_2._Transporting_oil_and_gas_in_Northwest_Russia.pdf, 11.05.2011). In the last 50 years there were predictions of different kinds from various institutions. One of such was made by Dr. Robert Skinner of OxfordInstitute of Energy Studies.

1) World primary energy demand will continue to grow in line with economic growth, at a coefficient of between 0.5.....

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8) Increasing shares of oil, gas and coal will be traded internationally.

9) The shift from the use of traditional fuels to commercial fuels in developing countries will accelerate; together with transition economies, developing countries will account for more than half of the world’s primary energy consumption by 2010.” (World Energy Trends, Dr. Robert Skinner, Oxford Instiute of Energy Studies, P 63, 11.05.2011).

These forecasts are only assumptions but they weigh heavily, which makes clear that government policies need a fundamental change to cope with future problems. Resources of fuel of any kind are sufficient until the years 2020 - 2030, so it is up to us, on every human being, to help saving energy and to find new solutions for the future.

Finally I want to provide a figure, a comparison of key consumptions and outcomes of different energy projections.

Figure 9: World Energy Trends, (

(Dr. Robert Skinner, Oxford Instiute of Energy Studies),Recent Developments and their Implications for Arab Countries, May 2006, Page 60, 02.05.2011)


2.4         Bibliography

Ballantyne Robert. 2008. “Oil and Gas Pipel”.California Geological Survey Preliminary Report, 25.Version.

.....

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< (04.04.2011).

International Energy Agency. 2005. “World Energy Outlook – Policies and Prices”. Published by BirolFatih.

< (04.04.2011).

KambaraTatsu and Christopher Howe. 2007. “China and the global energy crisis - development and prospects for China's oil and natural gas”.Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Ling Anthony, Waghorn Jonathan, Forrest Sarah and Lanstone Matthew.2004. “Global Energy – Introducing the Goldman Sachs Energy Environmental and Social Index”. Energy Environmental and Social Report. Published by Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

< (04.04.2011).

Longwell Harry J. 2002. “The Future of the Oil and Gas Industry: Past Approaches, New Challenges”. World Energy Report Vol. 5, No.3.

< (04.04.2011).

Mestmäcker Ernst-Joachim. 1993. “Natural Gas in the Internal market. A Review of Energy Policy”.Hrsg. Graham &Trotman, International Energy and Resources Law and Policy Series, London.

Pörzgen Gemma. 2007. “Gasprom – die Macht aus der Pipeline“. Hamburg, EuropäischerVerlagsanstalt, Hamburg 2007.....

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< (04.04.2011).

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2004, April 2004.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2004. “Evaluation of Impacts to Underground Sources of Drinking Water by Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs”. Pennsylvania, Washington, DC.

< (04.04.2011).



[1] Underlying resource in this chapter is the WDR-documentation “Blut und Öl – Kriege um das schwarze Gold” by Billstein H. et al. It is completed by .....

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