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Final thesis
Environmental Sciences

University, School

Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - KFU

Grade, Teacher, Year

Bednar-Friedl 2011

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As the example of Nelson shows the inhibition threshold of children to acts of violence goes down. The Young nowadays clearly show more readiness to use force. Extreme examples for this are the many terrible news-stories about the massacres committed by the young in American Schools. 8. Little known facts “The Simpsons” has been winning 86 awards so far, amongst others 23 Emmy Awards und 22 Annie Awards. Since January the 14th 2000 it even has its own star on the “Hollywood Walk of Fame”. About 300 characters have been drawn for the sitcom…

Figure 10: Location of offshore oil fields in Brazil

Source: energy tribune: < 08.05.2011

The interests of the PRC is playing a more and more important role for Latin-American states. Until now the Cheimports have been relatively low (2004: 2,4 %). The cooperations between projects in Argentina and Brazil and above all Venezuela are about to be extended.

One special agreement in this treaty is that it is not made in dollar. Halve the sum equivalent to 900 USD has to paid back in Yuan, the rest in oil. So this conditions are quite independent from the political and economic situation in the rest of the world, specially the US.

2.7         China in Angola

Angola provides 25% of Chinas oil imports. China has to heavy investors in this country- they are Ex&im Bank and China International Fund Ltd which officially is a private company but with very close ties to government and acting concerned about national interests. The two players realizelarge scale projects. Exim Bank gives funds, China International Fund Ltd does the construction in a manner in Europe would be called unsustainable development cooperation.

Everything is brought from China: Materialslabor and know how. Leaving nothing in the country but the work it self, and debts of course. Projects developed are mainly in infrastructure sector. Africa’s largest airport is under construction, a railway net is to be created. Hydro power plants, public housing, highways… As Angola is a special protégé of China, the IMF has hard.....[read full text]

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The development of this field will generate the crude to be processed in refineries to be built between PDVSA and CNPC in China to meet growing demand in the Asian market. This joint venture of production and improvement of extra heavy crude will be constituted with PDVSA, as the majority shareholder with a shareholding of 60% and 40% for CNPC.

3             Geopolitics of the Russian Federation

This chapter discusses the energy-related geopolitical actions of the Russian Federation. First there will be an overview of the Russian Federation´s energy consumption and production, then Russia´s role as the world´s leading oil producer as well as the second-largest natural gas and sixth-largest coal producer (CIA World Factbook, URL: (8.5.2011)) A great share of those energy sources goes into export, which gives Russia considerable leverage over their neighboring countries as well as over the whole European Union (this was demonstrated in the 2006, 2007 and 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas disputes).

3.1         Energy consumption

The energy consumption of Russia is, according to the size of the country, enormous. In 2008 Russia had a total energy consumption of 686 757 kilotons of oil equivalent, which is the third-highest total energy consumption worldwide (behind the United States and China). Total energy consumption in Russia declined significantly following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but is again slowly rising although it is still not even near the consumption in the start of the 1990s (World Bank Database, URL: (8.5.2011)).

In terms of energy consumption per capita Russia had a consumption of 4838 tons of oil equivalent, which is comparable or even slightly higher than in developed European countries (for example, Germany had a consumption of 4083 tons per capita and Finland 6635 tons per capita) but less than most highly developed small countries (Iceland had a consumption of 16556 tons per capita). (World Bank Dat.....

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The produced primary energy comes from the following sources:

Figure 15: Share of total primary energy supply in 2008

Source: International Energy Agency, < (8.5.2011)

In terms of production of electricity and the primary energy sources natural gas and crude oil, Russia is among the world´s largest producers. The total electricity production in 2009 amounted to 925,9 billion kWh, which makes Russia the world´s fifth-largest electricity producer.

Regarding crude oil production, Russia competes with Saudi Arabia for the world´s largest crude oil producer, being currently the largest oil producer with a production of 10 120 000 barrels per day (2010 estimate). With a total production of 583 600 000 000 cubic metres, they are also the second-largest producer of natural gas in the world (behind the United States).

Russia also hold the by far largest proved reserves of natural gas in the world with 47 570 000 000000 cubic metres of gas. In comparison to that, Iran, who holds the second largest gas reserves, posseses 29 610 000 000000 cubic metres of proved reserves. (CIA World Factbook, URL: (8.5.2011)).

Given a general overview, the energy production of the Russian Federation is by far large enough to make Russia completely self-sustainable and not dependant on any external sources. This also means that Russia has large energy reserves which can be, and are, used for export in neighboring states. This export will be discussed in detail .....

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In the crude oil market, Russia is the second-largest oil exporter worldwide (behind Saudi Arabia) with around 5 430 000 barrel/day (CIA World Factbook, URL: (8.5.2011)) and by far the largest non-OPEC exporter. Russian oil exports are controlled by a number of companies like for instance Rosneft, Lukoil or GazpromNeft, who are indirectly state-influenced, and almost all pipel are controlled by the state-owned monopoly Transneft.

Figure 16: Russian crude oil exports, in %

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration < (8.5.2011)

As the graphic shows, more than 80% of all Russian oil exports go to Europe and Eurasia, most of which go to member states of the European Union. The following graph shows the top importers:

Figure 17: Top Importers of Russian Crude Oil

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration < (8.5.2011)

Current development shows Russian intentions to open up a second market in the Asian Pacific region, which would lead to more profits through oil exports and decrease the dependence of Russia on Western European states. This culminated in the signing of a 20-year oil agreement with China valued at $ 25 billion, through which China will lend $ 15 billion to the oil company Rosneft and $ 10 billion to pipeline operator Transneft in exchange for a supply of 15 million tons of oil yearly for the next 20 years.

Following the signing of the deal, a new pipeline system was constructed which links northern China with the Siberian oil fields. (Forbes, URL: (8.5.2011))

Russia is also by a wide margin the largest natural gas exporter in the world, with a 2009 total export of 179 100 000 000 cubic meters (as an comparation, Norway, who ist the second-largest natural gas producer, exported 98 850 000 000 cubic metres of gas in 2009) (CIA World Factbook, URL: (8.5.2011)). The natural gas export is dominated by the state-owned company Gazprom, which produces up to 90 percent of the total Russi.....

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The third, and probably most well-known project is the South Stream, which should connect Russia to southeastern and eastern Europe while avoiding crossing through Ukrainian territory. The pipeline should lead from southern Russia as an undersea pipeline through the Black Sea, the first component ending in Bulgaria where the pipeline will split in two branches: one crossing Serbia and Hungary and connecting to Central Europe and the other leading through Greece and Albania directly to the Italian pipeline network.

The South Stream project competes with the Nabucco Pipeline, which leads on an overland route from Azerbeijan and is meant to decrease European dependence on Russian gas and oil. Completion of the South Stream Project is expected around 2015. (U.S. Energy Information Administration URL: (8.5.2011))

4             Conclusion

References

Asche, Helmut; Schüller, Margot, 2007, China als neue Kolonialmacht in Afrika? Umstrittene Strategien der Ressourcensicherung, German Institute of Global and AreaStudies, Nummer 1, Hamburg


Ebel, Robert E. 2009. “The Geopolitics of Russian Energy, Looking back, looking forward”; Report of the Center for Strategic and International Studies Energy and National Security program, Washington D.C.

< (01.04.2011).

Großmann Horst. (2003: 2 & 3). Der Irak und die Geopolitik der USA. Dresdener Studiengemeinschaft SICHERHEITSPOLITIK e.V Dresden

<

(29.03.2011)

International Energy Agency Statistics, 2011

<

(08.05.2011)

Kempener, Ruud; Anadon, Laura D. and Condor, Jose. 2010. “Governmental Energy Innovation Investments, Policies, and Institutions in the Major Emerging Economies: Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, China and South Africa”. Harvard Kennedy School Discussion paper

<

(01.04.2011).

National Energy Policy Development Group. 2001. “National Energy Policy“.Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group. Washington DC

.....

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Figure 1: Proved Oil reserves at end 2009. 8

Figure 2: Proved natural gas reserves at end 2009. 8

Figure 3: World pipeline map. 13

Figure 4: European strategy for natural gas. 14

Figure 5: Source EU Commission, IEA; Calculated by DIW Berlin, in Billion per unit volume, p. 4, 30.04.2011) 24

Figure 6: Eurogas long term outlook 2030, ( p. 5, 30.04.2011). 25

Figure 7: Natural Gas consumption in Europe in Billion per unit volume, (Der_Erdgasbedarf_der_EU_11_05_1__ks.pdf, p. 4, 30.04.2011). 25

Figure 8: The World of pipel, Zeit-Online, Die Welt der Pipel, Zeit-Online, ( 01.05.2011). 27

Figure 9: World Energy Trends, ( 32


 

Tables

Table 1: Oil Production by Region & Major Producers. 9

Table 2: Natural Gas Production by Region and Major Producers. 10

Table 3: The biggest oil companies of the world ( 5.5.2011) 15

Table 4: Development of the oil price. 18


 

Titel

7.4 The poker of pipel for oil and gas

Authors

Maier

Date

April 2011

Content

Is the world running out of energy? The oil and gas resources all over the world will be critical to meet the world’s growing appetite for energy. Global oil and gas reserves today exceed the increasing estimated production between now and 2030, but more reserves will need to be “proved up” in order to avoid a peak in production before the end of the forecast period.

Because of this extinction, the world will need more cross-border pipel for oil and gas transportation. The two main reasons to explain this need is the location of oil and gas reserves and the patterns of energy demand. But the usability of gas and oil pipel is constrained by regulatory, institutional .....

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