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Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention

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Bachelor thesis
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Fachhochschule Krems - FH

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2010, Schüssler

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WEB 2.0 FOR CUSTOMER RETENTION

Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention


BACHELOR’S PAPER
Export-oriented Management


Table of Content

 Kurzfassung 1

Abstract. 2

1.       Introduction 3

1.1.     Description of the problem 3

1.2.     Research Questions. 3

1.3.     Limitations. 4

1.4.     Methods. 4

1.5.     Structure. 5

2.       Web 2.0. 6

2.1.     Definition and history of Web 2.0. 6

2.2.     Web 2.0 tools. 9

2.3.     Summary. 30

3.       Customer Retention 31

3.1.     Definition. 31

3.2.     Opportunities and Threats of customer retention. 32

3.3.     Effectiveness of customer retention. 35

3.3.1. Causal chain of customer retention. 35

3.4.     Managing customer retention. 38

3.5.     Critique in measuring customer retention. 42

3.6.     Summary. 43

4.       Web 2.0 tools for Customer Retention 44

4.1.     Web 2.0 tools in the fields of application of e-commerce. 44

4.2.     Facebook vs. Twitter 45

4.3.     Summary. 50

5.       Conclusion 51

5.1.     Outlook to further research. 52

6.       List of References 53

6.1.     Books and Articles in Journals. 53

6.2.     Online Journals and Documents. 56

Kurzfassung

Das Ergebnis dieser Arbeit zeigt, dass Web 2.0 Tools viele Möglichkeiten zur Kundenbindung bieten und besonders die zwei Anwendungen Facebook und Twitter können dafür eingesetzt werden. Dennoch birgt der Einsatz von Web 2.0 Tools in der Marketing Strategie auch immer Gefahren, besonders wenn diese nicht richtig verwendet werden.

Am Beispiel von Firmenseiten auf der Social Network Plattform Facebook, sieht man, dass bei falscher Nutzung keine Kohärenz des dort veröffentlichten Inhalts mit dem allgemeinen Firmenimage besteht. Des Weiteren können User sich als Opfer von unerwünschter Werbung fühlen und negative Gefühle gegenüber einem Unternehmen entwickeln. Nichtsdestotrotz bieten Web 2.0 Tools zukunftsorientierten Unternehmen, die wettbewerbsfähig bleiben wollen, großartige Möglichkeiten, wie zum Beispiel aktive Kommunikation mit Kunden, Segmentierung und Zielgruppendefinition, Vertrauens und Akzeptanzförderung, Aufbau von Begeisterung und Emotionen, sowie Erkennen von Trends und Sammeln von Kundendaten.

Eine Wertsteigerung für das Unternehmen im Sinne von gesteigerter Brand Awareness, Kundenzufriedenheit, Kundenloyalität, und daraus resultierend, erhöhte Kundenbindung, kann dadurch entstehen.

In einem ersten Schritt wird der Begriff Web 2.0 definiert und beliebte Web 2.0 Tools werden beschrieben und mit praktischen Beispielen ergänzt um die Verständlichkeit des Themas zu erleichtern. Der zweite Teil dieser Arbeit grenzt den Begriff Kundenbindung ein, listet Möglichkeiten und Gefahren auf und beschreibt des Weiteren das Kundenbindungsmanagement.

Als letzter Schritt dieser Arbeit werden die zuvor beschriebenen Web 2.0 Tools auf ihre Einsetzbarkeit im Bereich der Kundenbindung analysiert. Der ausführlichste Teil in diesem Schritt beinhaltet den Vergleich der zwei Web 2.0 Anwendungen Facebook und Twitter hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung im Einsatz von verschiedenen zuvor definierten Prozessen der einzelnen Phasen der Kundenbindung.

Diese zwei Anwendungen wurden auf Grund ihrer Aktualität und, zur Zeit der Abfassung dieser Arbeit vorhanden.....[read full text]

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4+≈†+∋≤†

7+∞ +∞†≤+∋∞ +† †+;≈ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ≈++≠≈ †+∋† 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ +††∞+ ∋∋≈+ ⊥+≈≈;+;†;†;∞≈ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ +∞†∋;≈ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ †+∞ †≠+ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ 6∋≤∞+++∂ ∋≈⊇ 7≠;††∞+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †+∞+∞†++. 8+≠∞=∞+, ++ ;∋⊥†∞∋∞≈†;≈⊥ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ;≈†+ ∋ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+’≈ ∋∋+∂∞†;≈⊥ ≈†+∋†∞⊥+ ∋†≈+ ⊥+++†∞∋≈ ≤∋≈ +≤≤∞+, ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;† ≈+† ∞≈∞⊇ ≠;†+ ≈∞††;≤;∞≈† ∂≈+≠†∞⊇⊥∞.

7++∂;≈⊥ ∋† †+∞ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ +† †+∞ ≈+≤;∋† ≈∞†≠++∂ ⊥†∋††++∋ 6∋≤∞+++∂, +≈∞ ≤∋≈ ≈∞∞ †+∋† †+∞ ≠++≈⊥ ∞†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† ≤++⊥++∋†∞ ⊥∋⊥∞≈ ≤∋≈ †∞∋⊇ †+ ;≈≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈≤+ +† †+∞ ⊥∞+†;≈+∞⊇ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ≤+∋⊥∋≈+ ;∋∋⊥∞. 6∞+†+∞+∋++∞ ∞≈∞+≈ ≤∋≈ †∞∞† +=∞+-≈⊥∋∋∋∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈, ≤∋≈ ⊥++∋⊥† ≈∞⊥∋†;=∞ †∞∞†;≈⊥≈ †++ ∋ ++∋≈⊇ ++ ∋ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+. 4∞=∞+†+∞†∞≈≈ †∞†∞+∞-†++∂;≈⊥ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈, ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈† †+ ≈†∋+ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†;=∞ ∋≈⊇ ⊇;††∞+∞≈†;∋†∞ †++∋ †+∞;+ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†++≈, ∋+∞ +††∞+∞⊇ ⊥+∞∋† ≤+∋≈≤∞≈ ++ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ ∋≤†;=∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ≠;†+ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈, ≈∞⊥∋∞≈†∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †∋+⊥∞†;≈⊥, +∞;†⊇;≈⊥ +† †+∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ∋≤≤∞⊥†∋≈≤∞, ∞≈†∋+†;≈+;≈⊥ ∞≈†+∞≈;∋≈∋ ∋≈⊇ ∞∋+†;+≈≈ ++ ;⊇∞≈†;†+;≈⊥ †+∞≈⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≤+††∞≤†;≈⊥ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ ⊇∋†∋.

7+∞≈, †+∞ ∞≈∋⊥∞ +† 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ≤∋≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ =∋†∞∞ †++ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈, ++ ∋∞∋≈≈ +† ;≈≤+∞∋≈∞⊇ ++∋≈⊇ ∋≠∋+∞≈∞≈≈, ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ ≈∋†;≈†∋≤†;+≈, ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ †++∋††+, ∋≈⊇ ∋≈ ∋ +∞≈∞†† +;⊥+∞+ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈.

1≈ ∋ †;+≈† ≈†∞⊥ †+∞ †∞+∋ 3∞+ 2.0 ;≈ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †∞+†+∞+∋++∞ †+∞ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ †++†≈ ∋+∞ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ †+∞;+ ∞≈⊇∞+≈†∋≈⊇;≈⊥ ;≈ ≈∞⊥⊥++†∞⊇ ++ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈. 4≈ ∋ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ⊥∋+† †+;≈ †+∞≈;≈ ≠;†† †+∞∋† †+∞ †+⊥;≤ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈, ⊥+≈≈;+†∞ +⊥⊥++†∞≈;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †++∞∋†≈ ∋≈⊇ ++≠ †+ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞ ;†.

4≈ ∋ †∋≈† ≈†∞⊥ †+∞ +∞†++∞+∋≈⊇ ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ∋+∞ ∋≈∋†+=∞⊇ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞;+ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋+;†;†+ †++ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈. 7+∞ ∋+≈† ∞†∋+++∋†∞ ⊥∋+† +† †+;≈ ≈†∞⊥ ;≈≤†∞⊇∞≈ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋+;≈+≈ +† †+∞ †≠+ 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ 6∋≤∞+++∂ ∋≈⊇ 7≠;††∞+ ∋≈ †++ †+∞;+ ≈∞;†∋+;†;†+ †++ =∋+;+∞≈ +∞†++∞+∋≈⊇ ⊇∞†;≈∞⊇ ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈ +† †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ⊥+∋≈∞≈ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈. 7++≈∞ †≠+ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ≠∞+∞ ≤++≈∞≈ ⊇∞∞ †+ +∞≤∞≈† ∞=∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+;†+ +† ++†+, ∋† †+∞ †;∋∞ †+;≈ †+∞≈;≈ ≠∞+∞ ≠+;††∞≈.

1.&≈+≈⊥; 1≈†++⊇∞≤†;+≈

7+∞ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† 3∞+ 2.0 +≈ +∞+ ⊇∋;†+ †;†∞ ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ +≈ +∞+ +∞+∞+ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+ +∞+∋=;++ ;≈ +† ∋≈ ∞=∞+ ;≈≤+∞∋≈;≈⊥ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞. 7+∞≈ †+∞ ∋⊇+⊥†;+≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ;≈ ∋†≈+ +† ⊥++≠;≈⊥ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ †++ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊇=∞+†;≈;≈⊥ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ⊥∋;≈ ∋ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†;=∞ ∋⊇=∋≈†∋⊥∞. 0∞≈†+∋∞+≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ +∞∋≤+∞⊇ ∋++∞ ∞††;≤;∞≈††+ ∋≈⊇ +≈ ∋ +++∋⊇∞+ †∞=∞†. (4;≤++∋∞∞+, 2010, ⊥. 35; 4∞≠.....

3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ (†;∂∞ 3;∂;≈, 3†+⊥≈, 0+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈,…) ≈+≠∋⊇∋+≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ++ ∋∋≈+ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈ +∞† ≈++∞†⊇ ∋†≈+ +∞ ;≈†++⊇∞≤∞⊇ ++ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∞≈+∋≈≤∞ ;≈†∞+≈∋† ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∞≠†∞+≈∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈.

1.1. 8∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ +† †+∞ ⊥+++†∞∋

3;≈≤∞ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ;≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∋+†+ ≤+∞∋⊥∞+ †+∋≈ †+∞ ∋≤⊥∞;≈;†;+≈ +† ≈∞≠ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈, ∞∋≤+ ≤+∋⊥∋≈+ ≈++∞†⊇ ≈∞∞ ;† ∋≈ +≈∞ +† ;†≈ ≤++∞ +∞≈;≈∞≈≈ +⊥∞+∋†;+≈≈ (8;††+;≤+, 2002, ⊥.16; 4∞∂∞+{∞∞, 2007, ⊥. 19). 7+++∞⊥+ †+∞ ⊥++≠;≈⊥ ;∋⊥∋≤† +† 3∞+ 2.0 ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈ ≤+≈≤∞++∞≈††+ ≠;≈ ∋∋+∂∞† ⊥+≠∞+ +∞≤∋∞≈∞ +† ⊥++≠;≈⊥ †+∋≈≈⊥∋+∞≈≤∞ †+++∞⊥+ ∞≈;≈⊥ 3∞+ 2.0 (8∞≈≤+;≈≈∂;, 2007, ⊥. 52).

1≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ +∞ ∋+†∞ †+ ≈†∋+ ≤+∋⊥∞†;†;=∞, ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ ≤∋≈ ∋⊥⊥†+ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ †+ †∞††;†† ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈ ≈∞∞⊇∞⊇ ;≈ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈.

1.2. 5∞≈∞∋+≤+ 0∞∞≈†;+≈≈

7+∞ ∋∋;≈ ++{∞≤†;=∞ +† †+;≈ †+∞≈;≈ ;≈ †+ ∋≈≈≠∞+, ≠+;≤+ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ †∞††;†† ≠+;≤+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈† ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈. 3;≈≤∞ 3∞+ 2.0 ;≈ ∋≈ ∋+∞∋ +† ≤+≈†;≈∞+∞≈ ≤+∋≈⊥∞ †≠+ +† †+∞ ≤∞++∞≈††+ ∋+≈† ≈∞≤≤∞≈≈†∞† ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ ∋≈∋†+=∞⊇ ∋≈ ⊇∞∋+≈≈†+∋†;=∞ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞≈ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞;+ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋+;†;†+ †++ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈.

Hence the following hypothesis can be defined: Web 2.0 tools are applicable for activities needed in customer retention processes, which I expect to be proven right. Furthermore the following research question arises: Are Web 2.0 tools in theory applicable for activities in customer retention processes? Additionally the subsequent questions are subject of discussion:

-     What is Web 2.0?

-     Which Web 2.0 tools are known and how are they defined?

-     What is customer retention and how to manage it?

-     Which opportunities and threats are offered by customer retention?

-     How can Web 2.0 tools be used in order to successfully manage customer retention?

1.3. Limitations

Focusing on customer retention and how to manage it, limits this thesis in the area of customer relationship management. Hence this paper only discusses the applicability of Web 2.0 tools for the retention of existing customers and not the acquisition of new customers.

Furthermore, since this thesis are only conducted by researching literature and professional articles from the internet, applicability is limited to theory and no practical examples are used. Additionally there is no specification for the different industries and market sectors in which the companies operate in, but the entire thesis is conducted with regards to general appl.....

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7+∞ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∋† †+∞∋†∋∞≈† +† †+;≈ †+⊥;≤ ≠∋≈ ≈+† ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋+†∞ †++ †+;≈ ≈+++† ⊥∞+;+⊇ +† +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ∋≈⊇ ≠∋≈ †∞+†+∞+∋++∞ ≈∞⊥†∞≤†∞⊇ ⊇∞∞ †+ ∋ †∋≤∂ +† ≤+≈†∋≤†≈ †+ ∞≠⊥∞+†≈ ;≈ †+∞ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ †;∞†⊇.

1.4. 4∞†++⊇≈

7+;≈ †+∞≈;≈ ≠∋≈ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ;≈ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ;≈ †+∞ †;∞†⊇≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0, ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈, ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† ∋≈⊇ ∋∋+∂∞†;≈⊥ ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ 9≈⊥†;≈+ ∋≈⊇ 6∞+∋∋≈ +++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+≤∞∋∞≈†≈. 7+∞ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ≠∋≈ ∋∋;≈†+ ≈∞∋+≤+∞⊇ †++ +≈†;≈∞ ++ ;≈ †+∞ 140 †;++∋++ †+≤∞≈;≈⊥ +≈ †+∞ ∂∞+≠++⊇≈ ∋†++∞≈∋;⊇.

8∞∞ †+ †+∞ +∞⊥∞ ∋∋+∞≈† +† †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ †+∞ †;∞†⊇ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈, †+∞++;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈†+∋†∞⊥;∞≈ ≈†∋†∞⊇ ;≈ +++∂≈ ∋+∞ ≈+∋∞†;∋∞≈ ≤+≈†+∋⊇;≤†+++. 8∞+;≈⊥ †+∞ +∞≈∞∋+≤+ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ ≈∞=∞+∋† +++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ +≈†;≈∞ ⊇+≤∞∋∞≈†≈ ≤+≈≈;⊇∞+∞⊇ ∋≈ ∞≈∞†∞† †++ †+∞ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†;+≈ +† †+;≈ †+∞≈;≈, ≠∞+∞ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≈⊇ ⊇;≈+∞⊥∋+⊇∞⊇ ⊇∞∞ †+ +∞††∞+ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ ∋=∋;†∋+†∞ ++ ∋≈ ;≈≤+≈≈;≈†∞≈† +∞†≤+∋∞ †+++∞⊥++∞† †+∞ ≠+;†;≈⊥ ⊥++≤∞≈≈.

9≠∋∋⊥†∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≤†++ +† 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ≠∞+∞ ≤++≈∞≈ ∋≈ ∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ ;≈ +∞≈⊥∞≤†;=∞ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ ++ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ +≈†;≈∞ ∋+†;≤†∞≈ ∋++∞† +∞≤∞≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+;†+ +† ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈.

1.5.  3†+∞≤†∞+∞

7+∞ ⊥∋⊥∞+ ;≈ ⊇;=;⊇∞⊇ ;≈†+ †++∞∞ ⊥∋+†≈:

7+∞ †;+≈† ⊥∋+† ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞≈ †+∞ †∞+∋ 3∞+ 2.0 ;≈ ⊇∞†∋;† ∋≈⊇ ⊥;=∞≈ ⊥∞≈∞+∋† ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ †∋≤†≈ ∋++∞† 3∞+ 2.0 ;≈≤†∞⊇;≈⊥ ∋ ⊇∞†∋;†∞⊇ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈ ∋≈⊇ ≠+;≤+ ⊥+≈≈;+;†;†;∞≈ ∞∋≤+ †++† +††∞+≈ (≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈, ≤+∞∋†;+≈ +† ∞∋+†;+≈≈,…).

7+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ⊥∋+† ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†∞≈ +≈ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥++≤∞≈≈ +† ∋∋≈∋⊥;≈⊥ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ;≈ 0∞≈†+∋∞+ 5∞†∋†;+≈≈+;⊥ 4∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† (054). 4⊇⊇;†;+≈∋††+ ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈≈ +† †∞+∋≈ ∋≈⊇ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† +† ≤∞≈†+.....

7+∞ †+;+⊇ ⊥∋+† ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈††+ ⊥;=∞≈ ≈+∋∞ ∋⊥⊥++∋≤+∞≈ +† ++≠ †+ ∞≈∞ 3∞+ 2.0 †++ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞+†+∞+∋++∞ ∞=∋†∞∋†∞≈ †+∞ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†≈, ≈⊥∞≤;†;∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ⊥∋+†, ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞;+ ∞≈∋+;†;†+ †++ ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈ +† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈, ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ;≈ †+∞ ≈∞≤+≈⊇ ⊥∋+†.

6++ †∞+†+∞+ ≤+∋⊥+∞+∞≈≈;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞∞ †+ +∞≤∞≈† ∞=∞≈†≈, †+∞ †≠+ 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ 6∋≤∞+++∂ ∋≈⊇ 7≠;††∞+ ∋+∞ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∋†∞∋†∞⊇ ∞⊥+≈ †+∞;+ ∋⊇∞⊥∞∋≤+ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† ≤∞≈†+∋∞+ +∞†∞≈†;+≈ ⊥++≤∞≈≈∞≈.

2.  Web 2.0

Defining the term itself and several Web 2.0 tools as well as giving examples of their usage, should give a basic understanding of the topic. The applicability of the chosen tools for customer retention is thereupon comprehensible and important for the final outcome of this paper.

2.1. Definition and history of Web 2.0

The term Web 2.0 evolved in 2004 at a brainstorming session between O’Reilly and MediaLive International, invented in order to describe and pool new and emerging Web-based tools. (Schrum, & Solomon, 2007, p. 13) After the dot-com bust in 2001 the Web was thought to be a thing of the past, though survivors of the burst and newly emerging companies all exploited the new opportunities of the network as a platform. (Shuen, 2008, p. 1)

Among experts there is still “a huge amount of disagreement about just what Web 2.0 means” (O’Reilly radar, 2005-2009), ranging from terms such as “meaningless marketing buzzword” to “new conventional wisdom”. (O’Reilly Media Inc., 2011)

In order to clarify the term O’Reilly opposed Web 1.0 applications to those of Web 2.0, concentrating on the principles of conventional and new Web 2.0 tools. The ongoing list is summarized in table 1, specifying some examples of Web 1.0 applications and their new exemplary opponents for Web 2.0. (O’Reilly Media Inc., 2011)

Table 1: Web 1.0 .....

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3∞+ 1.0                                                                    3∞+ 2.0

8+∞+†∞ 0†;≤∂                                    à                    6++⊥†∞ 4⊇3∞≈≈∞

0†+†+                                                 à                    6†;≤∂+

4∂∋∋∋;                                              à                    3;†7+++∞≈†

∋⊥3.≤+∋                                           à                    4∋⊥≈†∞+

3+;†∋≈≈;≤∋ 0≈†;≈∞                           à                    3;∂;⊥∞⊇;∋

0∞+≈+≈∋† ≠∞+≈;†∞≈                          à                    3†+⊥⊥;≈⊥

9=;†∞                                                  à                    ∞⊥≤+∋;≈⊥.++⊥ ∋≈⊇ 9283

8+∋∋;≈ ≈∋∋∞ ≈⊥∞≤∞†∋†;+≈            à                    ≈∞∋+≤+ ∞≈⊥;≈∞ +⊥†;∋;=∋†;+≈

⊥∋⊥∞ =;∞≠≈                                       à                    0+≈† ⊥∞+ ≤†;≤∂

3≤+∞∞≈ ≈≤+∋⊥;≈⊥                              à                    3∞+ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈

0∞+†;≈+;≈⊥                                       à                    0∋+†;≤;⊥∋†;+≈

0+≈†∞≈† ∋∋≈∋⊥∞∋∞≈† ≈+≈†∞∋≈    à                    3;∂;≈

8;+∞≤†++;∞≈ (†∋≠+≈+∋+)                   à                    7∋⊥⊥;≈⊥ (“†+†∂≈+≈+∋+”)

3†;≤∂;≈∞≈≈                                         à                    3+≈⊇;≤∋†;+≈

3+∞+≤∞: ∋⊇∋⊥†∞⊇ †++∋: 0’5∞;††+ 4∞⊇;∋ 1≈≤., 2011

7+ ≈++≠ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥†∞≠;†+ +† †+∞ ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥+∋≤†;≤∞≈ ∋++∞≈⊇ †+∞ ⊥+∋=;†∋†;+≈∋† ≤++∞ +† †+∞ 3∞+ ∋≈ ∋ ⊥†∋††++∋, ∋ “4∞∋∞ 4∋⊥” ≠∋≈ ≈∞† ∞⊥ ∋† +≈∞ +† †+∞ ++∋;≈≈†++∋;≈⊥ ≈∞≈≈;+≈≈. 7+;≈ ∋∋⊥, ≈++≠≈ ;≈ †;⊥∞+∞ 1, ;≈ ≈†;†† ≈∞∞≈ ∋≈ ∋ ≠++∂ ;≈ ⊥++⊥+∞≈≈ ≈++≠;≈⊥ ∞⊥ †+∞ ∋∋;≈ ;⊇∞∋≈ ∞∋∋≈∋†;≈⊥ †++∋ †+∞ 3∞+ 2.0 ≤++∞. (0‘5∞;††+ 4∞⊇;∋ 1≈≤., 2011)

6;⊥∞+∞ 1: 4∞∋∞ 4∋⊥ +† 3∞+ 2.0

3+∞+≤∞: 0’5∞;††+ 4∞⊇;∋ 1≈≤., 2011

7;∋ 0’5∞;††+ ≠∋≈ †+∞ †;+≈† ≠++ †;≈†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ⊇∞≈≤+;+∞⊇ ≤+∋≈⊥∞≈ †++∋ 3∞+ 1.0 †+ 3∞+ 2.0. 6∞+†+∞+∋++∞ ∋ =∞+≈;+≈ ≈∞∋+∞+ ≠∋≈ ∞†;†;=∞⊇, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ∋∋;≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ⊇∞†;≈∞ †+∞ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈† +† ∋ ≈+††≠∋+∞ ∞†∞∋∞≈† ∋† ∋ .....

4† †+∞ ≈∋∋∞ †;∋∞ †+∞ ∞≈∋⊥∞ +† ∋ =∞+≈;+≈ ≈∞∋+∞+ ∋;≈†∞∋⊇;≈⊥†+ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ ∋ ≈∞≠ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;≤∋† †∞∋⊥, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ †+∞ +;⊥⊥∞≈† ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞ +† 3∞+ 2.0 †+ 3∞+ 1.0 ;≈ ;†≈ ≤+≈≤∞≈†+∋†;+≈ +≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ∋≈⊇ ≤+≈†∞≈† +∋†+∞+ †+∋≈ +≈ ⊇∞†;≈;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ⊇∞≈†;≈∋†;+≈≈ †++ ≠∞+ ∞≈∞+≈. (8∋≈≈, 9;††;∋≈, &∋∋⊥; 3∋†≈+, 2008, ⊥⊥. 17-19, 74)

7++∞⊥+ †+∞ ∞=∞+ †∋≈†-≤+∋≈⊥;≈⊥ ;≈†∞+≈∞† ∞∋≈;†+ +∞≈⊇∞+≈ ∋≈+ ∞∋∞+⊥;≈⊥ ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈ +∞† +† ⊇∋†∞, †≠+ ∞≈⊇≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0 ⊇∞†;≈;†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ †++∋ ∋ †∞≤+≈;≤;∋≈’≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋ ≈+≤;∋† ≈≤;∞≈†;≈†’≈ ⊥+;≈† +† =;∞≠. 7+∞ ≤+∋+;≈∋†;+≈ +† †∞≤+≈;⊥∞∞≈, ∋+≤+;†∞≤†∞+∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞≤+≈+†+⊥;∞≈ †∞⊇ †+ ∋ †+∋≈≈;†;+≈ †+ ∋ ≈∞≠ ⊥∞≈∞+∋†;+≈ +† ⊇+≈∋∋;≤ ≈+≤;∋† ≠∞+ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈.

3+≤;∋† ≈≤;∞≈†;≈†≈ +≈ †+∞ +†+∞+ +∋≈⊇ ≈†∋†∞ †+∋† “≠∞ ∋+∞ †+∞ 3∞+” ∋≈⊇ +∞≈≤∞, ≠+∞†+∞+ ≤∋††∞⊇ 3∞+ 2.0 ++ ≈+†, †+∞ ≠∞+ ;≈ ≈+∋⊥∞⊇ ++ ⊥∞+⊥†∞, ≠+;≤+ †+∞≈, ∋∋∂∞≈ ;† ∞≈⊥+∞⊇;≤†∋+†∞ ∋≈⊇ †∞⊇ ;≈ ∋≈ ∞≈∞≠⊥∞≤†∞⊇ ⊇;+∞≤†;+≈. (3+∞∞≈, 2008, ⊥. 1)

The following summary was given by O’Reilly concerning the full extent of Web 2.0: “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform. Chief among those rules is this: Build applications that harness network effects to get better the more people use them.” (O’Reilly radar, 2005-2009)

Another definition given by the internet blogger Ian Davis concentrates more on the social part of the Web 2.0: “Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It’s about enabling and encouraging participation through open applications and services. By open, I mean technically open, with appropriate APIs[1] but also, more important, socially open, with rights granted to use the content in new and exciting contexts.” (Internet Alchemy, 2011)

In a nutshell, the term Web 2.0 cannot be defined and captured in a single, simple phrase, but is rather a combination of several tools and principles, more or less bound to each other. (Governor, Hinchcliffe, & Nickull, 2009, p. 1)

2.2. Web 2.0 tools

Due to the wide range of tools, which have been defined in the last years, this thesis will concentrate on those, most commonly used and described in books. The emergence of those tools, as well as private usage and business-oriented ways of how to use them for customer retention will be discussed. For further understanding one or more examples will be mentioned .....

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7+∞ ∋+≈† ≠∞††-∂≈+≠≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋+≈† ≠;⊇∞†+ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇ 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ∋+∞ 3;∂;≈ ∋≈⊇ 3†+⊥≈. (8∋∋;∋≈;, 7+†+∋≈, &∋∋⊥; 0+⊇+≈∞= ⊇∞ 0∋+†+≈, 2009, ⊥. 171) 7++≈∞ †≠+ ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ †++∋≈ ≤+≈†+;+∞†∞ †+ †+∞ ≠+;†∞ ≈∋†∞+∞ +† †+∞ 3∞+ 2.0 ≈+≠∋⊇∋+≈. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 49) 4∋+≈⊥ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈ ≠;∂;≈ ∋≈⊇ =;⊇∞+-≠∞+ ⊥∋⊥∞≈ +∋=∞ †+∞ +;⊥+∞≈† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+;†+, †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ 3†+⊥≈, ⊥++†+-≠∞+ ⊥∋⊥∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∋† ≈∞†≠++∂≈.

4≈ ≈++≠≈ ;≈ ⊥+∋⊥+ 1 †+∞ ∞≈∋⊥∞ +† 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ +† ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈ ≠;⊇∞†+ ⊇;††∞+≈. 0+⊇≤∋≈†, +≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ++ ∋++∞† 7% +† ;≈†∞+≈∞† ∞≈∞+≈ ;≈ 6∞+∋∋≈+, +∞† ∋++∞ ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ ;≈ †+∞ 03, ;≈ +;⊥+†+ ∞†;†;=∞⊇ ∋∋+≈⊥ †+∞ “3∞≈† 6†++∋† 3+∋≈⊇≈ 2007”, ≠;†+ +=∞+ 70%, †+††+≠∞⊇ ++ =;⊇∞+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥++†+-⊥†∋††++∋≈ ≠;†+ 60%. 3;†+ ∋++∞† 40% +†+⊥≈, ≈+≤;∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈∞†≠++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ =;+†∞∋† ≠++†⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ +≈†;≈∞ ⊥∋∋∞≈ ∋+∞ †;≈†∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ ⊥†∋≤∞≈ †++∞∞ †+ †;=∞.

6∋+ +∞+;≈⊇, ≠;†+ ∋ ∞†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† 7% 3;∂;≈ +∋=∞ †+∞ †∞∋≈† ⊥+;++;†+ †++ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈. (6+∋+∞≈≈†++∞+, 2009, ⊥. 24)

6+∋⊥+ 1: 0†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ++ †+∞ “3∞≈† 6†++∋† 3+∋≈⊇≈ 2007

3+∞+≤∞: ∋⊇∋⊥†∞⊇ †++∋: 6+∋+∞≈≈†++∞+, 2009, ⊥. 24

4∋+≈⊥ †++≈∞ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ ∞≈;≈⊥ 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈, †+∞+∞ ∋+∞ +∞⊥∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈≤∞≈ ;≈ †+∞ ++∋≈≤+ †+∞+ ∋+∞ +⊥∞+∋†;≈⊥ ;≈. 7+∞ ∋∋;≈ ∞≈∞+≈ ∋+∞ ≤+∋⊥∞†∞+, ;≈†∞+≈∞† ∋≈⊇ ∞†∞≤†++≈;≤, ∋≈ ≠∞†† ∋≈ ∋∞⊇;∋ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈, ≠+;≤+ ≈∞⊥⊥∞≈†≈ ;†≈∞††, ≈;≈≤∞ †++≈∞ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ +††∞+ ∋ ≈∞≠ ≤+∋≈≈∞† +† ⊇;≈†+;+∞†;+≈.

8∞∞ †+ ∋ ++∞≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ⊇+≈∋∋;≤ ;∋∋⊥∞ +† ≈⊥++†;≈⊥ ⊥++⊇≈’ +∞†∋;†∞+≈, †+∞;+ ∞†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† †+∞ ∋++=∞∋∞≈†;+≈∞⊇ †++†≈ ;≈ +;⊥+∞+-†+∋≈-∋=∞+∋⊥∞ ∋≈ ≠∞††. 3∞+≈†∋≈⊇∋+⊇ ∞≈∞+≈ +† 3∞+ 2.0 ∋+∞ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ †++∋≤≤+ ∋≈⊇ ∋†≤+++†, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ;≈ ≤+≈≈∞⊥∞∞≈≤∞ +† ≈†+;≤† ⊥++∋+†;+≈∋† +∞≈†+;≤†;+≈≈. 8∞≈≤∞ ≈+† +≈†+ ;≈ ∋+≈† +† †+∞ ;≈⊇∞≈†+;∞≈, +∞† ∋†≈+ ;≈ †+∞ ∞†;†;=∋†;+≈ +† ⊥+⊥∞†∋+ 3∞+ 2.0 ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈≈ ∋≈ ≈∞≤+, †+∞+∞ ;≈ ∋ +∞⊥∞ ⊥+†∞≈†;∋† †++ †+∞ †∞†∞+∞. (6+∋+∞≈≈†++∞+, 2009, ⊥. 26)

2.2.1.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 3;∂;

4 3;∂; ;≈ ∋ ⊥∋⊥∞ ++ ∋ ≈+≈†∞∋ +† ≈∞=∞+∋† ⊥∋⊥∞≈, ∋∋≈∋⊥∞⊇ ++ ∋≈ ∋∞†+++ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ≤+††∞≤† ++ ≤+≈⊇∞≤† ≤+≈†∞≈†≈, ≠+;≤+ ≤∋≈ +∞ ⊇;+∞≤††+ ∞⊇;†∞⊇, ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈ ∞≠†∞≈⊇∞⊇, ∞⊥⊇∋†∞⊇, ∋+⊇;†;∞⊇ ++ ⊇∞†∞†∞⊇ ++ +†+∞+ ⊥∞+⊥†∞, ;† ;† ;≈ ∋ ⊥∞+†;≤ +≈∞, †+;≈ ≤∋≈ ∞=∞≈ +∞ ⊇+≈∞ ≠;†++∞† +∞⊥;≈†+∋†;+≈. 3;†+ †+;≈ ∋⊥⊥†;≤∋†;+≈ ∞≈∞+≈ ≤∋≈ ≤+≈†+;+∞†∞ †+ ∋≈⊇ ⊥∋+†;≤;⊥∋†∞ +≈ †+∞ ≠∞+ †+⊇∋+. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 54) 7+++∞⊥+ ∋ ≠;∂; †+∞ ⊥++=;⊇∞⊇ ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ ;≈ ∞;†+∞+ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ ++ †+∞ ∞≈∞+ +;∋≈∞†† ++ .....

7+∞≈, ∋⊇⊇;†;+≈∋† =∋†∞∞ ;≈ +††∞+∞⊇ †+ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈ ;≈ †+∞ ∞≠;≈†;≈⊥ ⊥++⊇∞≤† †;≈∞. (3∋∞∞+, 6++ß∞-7∞∞⊥∞, &∋∋⊥; 5+≈⊥∞+, 2007, ⊥. 209)

7+∞ ≠++⊇ “≠;∂;” ++;⊥;≈∋†∞≈ †++∋ †+∞ 8∋≠∋;;∋≈ ≠++⊇ “≠;∂;≠;∂;”, ≠+;≤+ ∋∞∋≈≈ “†∋≈†” ∋≈⊇ †;+≈† ∋⊥⊥∞∋+∞⊇ ;≈ 1995 ∞≈⊇∞+ †+∞ ≤+∋⊥+∞≈⊇ †∞+∋ “3;∂;3;∂;3∞+”. 4 ⊇;≈†;≈≤†;+≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋∋⊇∞ +∞†≠∞∞≈ ∋ ≈+†∞ “≠;∂; ⊥∋⊥∞” ∋≈⊇ “†+∞ ≠;∂;”, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ≤+≈≈∞≤†∞⊇ †+++∞⊥+ ≈∞=∞+∋† †;≈∂≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ∋ “≈;∋⊥†∞, ∞∋≈+-†+-∞≈∞, ∋≈⊇ ∞≈∞+-∋∋;≈†∋;≈∞⊇ ⊇∋†∋+∋≈∞ †++ ≤+∞∋†;≈⊥ ≤+≈†∞≈†.” (;+;⊇., ⊥. 54)

4⊥⊥++⊥+;∋†∞ ≠;∂; ≈+††≠∋+∞ ∋††+≠≈ †+∞ ∞≈∞+ †+ ∞≈†∞+ ++ ∞⊇;† ≈+∋∞†+;≈⊥ ≠;†++∞† ∞≈;≈⊥ 8747, ;≈≈†∞∋⊇ †+∞ ∋+⊇;†;∞⊇ ++ ≈∞≠ ≤+≈†∞≈† ;≈ ∋∞†+∋∋†;≤∋††+ ≤+≈=∞+†∞⊇ ;≈†+ 8747. (;+;⊇., ⊥. 54) “3;∂;≈ ≈++∞†⊇ ≈+† ∞≈†+∋⊥ †+ ⊥∋≈≈;=∞ ≤+≈≈∞∋∋∋†;+≈ +† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈ †;∂∞ †+∞ ≤+≈=∞≈†;+≈∋† 3∞+, +∞† ≈++∞†⊇ ∋+†;=∋†∞ ∋≤†;=∞ ∞≠≤+∋≈⊥∞ +† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈.” (3∋≤∂, 6++≈∋∞, &∋∋⊥; 7+≤+†∞+∋∋≈≈, 2008, ⊥. 10) 7+∞+∞†++∞ ≠;∂;≈ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ +∞ ⊇∞≈;⊥≈∞⊇ ∋≈ +⊥∞≈ ≈+≈†∞∋≈, ∋∞∋≈;≈⊥ †+∋† ∞∋≤+ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞++ ∞≈∞+ ;≈ ∋+†∞ †+ ++≈∞+=∞ ∋≈⊇ ∞⊇;† ∋†† †+∞ ≤+≈†∞≈†.

For special content such as headlines and emphasized words special rules apply. (Hagemann, & Voss, 2007, p. 54) Those rules are in addition to basic rules of conduct, laid down e.g. in the “Wikiquette”, which is used by Wikipedia and should encourage users to treat others with respect in order to effectively build up an international online encyclopedia. (Back, et al., 2008, p. 11; Wikipedia, 2011)



2.2.1.1.       Example

The most popular example for a Wiki is the abovementioned online encyclopedia Wikipedia, which was established in 2001 by Larry Singer and Jimmy Wales. Initially the Wikipedia-project should have amended the already existing Nupedia. Users should write their own contents for an international, free of charge and web-based encyclopedia.

By now Nupedia lost its importance and Wikpedia, with versions in over 200 languages and more than 50.000 articles, is the biggest encyclopedia in the world. Compared to any printed encyclopedia version, Wikipedia is always up-to-date and constantly filled with news. (Alby, 2007, p. 88)

Since the quality of Wikipedia’s contents is often criticized and some critics refer to it as the biggest “piece of scrap paper” in the world, a comparison between 42 articles from different fields from Wikipedia and the Encyclopedia Britannica was conducted by the journal “Nature”. The result was that the number of profound mistakes was in both cases the same. (B.....

3;∂;≈ ≤∋≈ ∋†≈+ +∞ ∞≈∞⊇ †++ ∞⊇∞≤∋†;+≈∋† ⊥∞+⊥+≈∞≈ ≈;≈≤∞ †+∞+ †+≈†∞+ ≤+≈†+;+∞†;+≈, ∋+≈;†++;≈⊥, ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈ ∋≈⊇ ;≈†∞+∋≤†;+≈. 3;∂;≈⊥∋≤∞≈.≤+∋ ⊥;=∞≈ ≠;∂;≈ †+∞∞ +† ≤+∋+⊥∞ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊇≈ †+ ∞⊇∞≤∋†++≈. 4⊇⊇;†;+≈∋††+ †+∞+∞ ∞≠;≈† ≈∞=∞+∋† †+∞∞ ≠;∂; †++†≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈: 3;∂;4∞⊇;∋, 7;∂;3;∂; ++ 8+∂∞3;∂;. (3;†∞6++∞≈⊇.≤+∋, 1≈≤., 2011)

2.2.2.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 3†+⊥

7+∞ ≠++⊇ 3†+⊥ ⊇∞+;=∞≈ †++∋ “3∞+†+⊥”, +∞≈∞∋+†;≈⊥ ∋ ≈∋∞†;≤∋† †+⊥ ≠+;††∞≈ ++ ∋ ≤∋⊥†∋;≈ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ⊇+≤∞∋∞≈† ⊇∋;†+ ∋≤†;=;†;∞≈ ∋≈⊇ ⊥;=∞ ∋ ⊇∞≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ +† †+∞ {+∞+≈∞+ +† †+∞ ≈+;⊥. 0⊥;≈;+≈≈ ⊇;††∞+ ∋++∞† ≠++ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ †+∞ †∞+∋, +∞† †;+≈† +†+⊥≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ †+∞≈⊇ ;≈ 1997, ≠+∞≈ ⊥∞+⊥†∞ ≈†∋+†∞⊇ †+ ≠+;†∞ ∋++∞† †+∞∋≈∞†=∞≈ ∋≈⊇ †∞†† †+∞ ≈∞∞⊇ †+ ≤+∋∋∞≈† +≈ ;≈≈∞∞≈ ≠;†++∞† ∋≈+ ⊥∋+†;≤∞†∋+ ≈∞≈≈∞. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 49) 3†+⊥≈ †∞≈⊇ †+ +∞ ≈∞∞≈ ∋≈ ∋ 3∞+ 2.0 †++†, †++∞⊥+ †+∞ †;+≈† +†+⊥≈ ≠∞+∞ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇ +∞†++∞ †+∞ †∞+∋ “3∞+ 2.0” +∋≈ +∞∞≈ ∞≈†∋+†;≈+∞⊇. (3†∋∞††∞+, 2008, ⊥. 4)

1† †;∋;†∞⊇ †+ ;†≈ ≤+≈†∞≈†≈ ∋ +†+⊥ ;≈ ≈+∋∞ ∂;≈⊇ +† ⊇;∋++ ++ {+∞+≈∋† ⊥∞+†;≈+∞⊇ +≈ †+∞ 333. 9≈†+;∞≈ +† ∋ +†+⊥ ⊥+≈†∞⊇ ++ +†+∞+≈ ≤∋≈ +∞ ∋+⊇;†;∞⊇, †++∞⊥+ †+∞ ≠∞+≈;†∞ ;†≈∞†† ;≈ ∋∋;≈†∋;≈∞⊇ ++ +≈†+ +≈∞ ;≈⊇;=;⊇∞∋†.  (8∋∋;∋≈;, ∞† ∋†., 2009, ⊥. 171) 3†+⊥ ∞≈†+;∞≈ ∋+∞ ∞⊥⊇∋†∞⊇ +≈ ∋ +∞⊥∞†∋+ +∋≈;≈ ∋≈⊇ †+∞ ∋+≈† +∞≤∞≈† ⊥+≈† ∋†≠∋+≈ ∋⊥⊥∞∋+≈ †;+≈† +≈ †+∞ ⊥∋⊥∞. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 50; 3∋≤∂, ∞† ∋†., 2008, ⊥. 19)

0+≈≤∞++∞≈††+ ∋ ≈∞≠ ∋≤†;=;†+ ≤∋††∞⊇ “+†+⊥⊥;≈⊥” ≠∋≈ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇, ≠+;≤+ ;≈ ⊇+≈∞ ++ “3†+⊥⊥∞+≈”. 3+ †+∞ ⊥∞+≈+≈ ∂∞∞⊥;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ∞⊥⊇∋†;≈⊥ †+∞ +≈†;≈∞ ⊇;∋++ ;≈ †+∞ +†+⊥⊥∞+, ≠++ ∞≈†∞+≈ +∞⊥∞†∋+ ⊥+≈†≈, +†+⊥≈. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 50) 4 +†+⊥ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ ∞∋≈;†+, ∋≈⊇ †+∞+∞ ;≈ ≈+ ≈∞∞⊇ +† ⊥++⊥+∋∋∋;≈⊥ ++ ∋∋+∂∞⊥ †∋≈⊥∞∋⊥∞, ≈;≈≤∞ ∋ +†+⊥⊥∞+ ≤∋≈ ≤+∞∋†∞ ∋ +†+⊥ ∋≤≤++⊇;≈⊥ †+ †+∞ 3531356 ⊥+;≈≤;⊥†∞. (9+≤+, &∋∋⊥; 5;≤+†∞+, 2007, ⊥. 24)

4† †+∞ +∞⊥;≈≈;≈⊥ +†+⊥≈ ≠∞+∞ +≈†+ ∞≈∞⊇ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ +∞⊥++† ⊥+;=∋†∞ ∞=∞≈†≈ ++ ≈†∋†∞ ≈+∋∞ ≈+∞+≤∞ +† ;≈†++∋∋†;+≈, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ †+⊇∋+ ≈∞∋∞++∞≈ †+⊥;≤≈ ∋+∞ ⊇;≈≤∞≈≈∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈≤∞, ∋≈ ≈++≠≈ ;≈ †∋+†∞ 2, ≈∞=∞+∋† †+⊥∞≈ +† +†+⊥≈ ≠∞+∞ ∞≈†∋+†;.....

7∋+†∞ 2: 7+⊥;≤≈ +† 3†+⊥≈

3∋†≤++†+⊥≈

0+;†;≤∋† ++≈∞+=∋†;+≈ +† ∋∞⊇;∋ ∋≈⊇ †;†∞+∋†∞+∞

7;†+†+⊥≈

9≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +† †;†∞+∋†∞+∞ †+⊥;≤≈

0++⊥++∋†∞ 3†+⊥≈

3†+⊥≈ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ ++ ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈

3†∋≠⊥≈

9≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +† {∞⊇;≤;∋† ≤+≈†∞≈†≈

0++†+-+†+⊥≈

0∞+†;≤∋†;+≈ +† ∋∋;≈†+ ⊥++†+≈

0+†;†+†+⊥≈

9≠∋∋;≈∋†;+≈ +† ⊥+†;†;≤∋† †+⊥;≤≈

4∞⊇;+ ∋≈⊇ 2;⊇∞+-+†+⊥≈

3†+⊥≈ ≠;†+ ∋∋;≈†+ ∋∞⊇;+ ∋≈⊇ =;⊇∞+ ≤+≈†∞≈†≈

0+≈≈∞∋∞+ +†+⊥≈

3†+⊥≈ ≤+≈⊇∞≤†∞⊇ ++ ≤+≈≈∞∋∞+≈

3+∞+≤∞: †+∋≈≈†∋†∞⊇ ∋≈⊇ ∋⊇∋⊥†∞⊇ †++∋: 4†++, 2007, ⊥. 24

Especially corporate blogs are qualified to better communicate contents and information regarding the company itself and hence clients build a rising trust in the company, which furthermore has direct effects on customer loyalty. (Bauer, et al., 2007, p. 210)[2]

Today most blogs are much more complex than the basic form of text-based entries. With images, audio or videos, graphics and photos features are added to blogs. (Hagemann, & Voss, 2007, p. 50) Another possibility is to enable comments, which makes a site more interactive through comments and arising discussion and can furthermore create an online community. (Stauffer, 2008, p. 12) One example therefor is the Huffington Post blog, which is, according to Technorati, currently the most popular online blog.

The site offers videos, tags, RSS feeds covering areas such as politics, media, business, entertainment, living, and world news. Furthermore commenting is enabled in order to foster discussions among users. (Technorati, Inc., 2011, Huffington Post, 2011)

Critics may argue that a blog is only a forum, where the participants allocate themselves to different blogs. The essential difference compared to a forum, however, is, as mentioned before, that there is only one author and hence only the author of the original entry is able to set the principal theme. (Alby, 2007, p. 122) Furthermore forums require the user to log on, whereas for blogs this is .....

7+∞ ∞≈≈∞≈†;∋† +† ∋ +†+⊥ ;≈ †+∞ ≤+≈†∞≈†, ≈+† †+∞ ≤+∋∋∞≈†;≈⊥. (4∞=0≈, 2004-2006)

2.2.2.1.9≠∋∋⊥†∞

0≈∞ ∞≠∋∋⊥†∞ ;≈ 3†∋≈+⊇+†.++⊥, ≠+;≤+ ≠∋≈ ≈†∋+†∞⊇ ;≈ 1997 ++ 5++ 4∋†⊇∋ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ⊥∞+†;≈+ “≈∞≠≈ †++ ≈∞+⊇≈, ≈†∞†† †+∋† ∋∋††∞+≈”. 7+∞ +†+⊥ ;≈ ≈†;†† ∋∋;≈†∋;≈∞⊇ †+⊇∋+, ∋≈⊇ ;≈ ≤∋†∞⊥++;∞≈ †;∂∞ 3++∂≈, 8∞=∞†+⊥∞+≈, 6∋∋∞≈, 8∋+⊇≠∋+∞, 1≈†∞+=;∞≠≈, 17, 7;≈∞≠, 0+†;†;≤≈ ++ 3≤;∞≈≤∞ ∋ =∞++ †;=∞†+ ≈;†∞ ≠∋≈ ≤+∞∋†∞⊇. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 50)

4 ⊥++∋;≈∞≈† ≤++⊥++∋†∞ +†+⊥ ;≈ †+∞ +≈∞ ∂∞⊥† ++ 6∞≈∞+∋† 4+†++≈ 2;≤∞ 0+∋;+∋∋≈ 3++ 7∞†=, ;≈ ≠+;≤+ +∞ ∋≈⊇ +†+∞+ 64 ∞∋⊥†++∞∞≈ ;≈†++∋ ∋++∞† ≈∞≠ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥∋∞≈†≈ ∋≈⊇ ∞=∞≈†≈ ;≈ †+∞ ⊇;††∞+∞≈† 64 ≤+∋⊥∋≈;∞≈, +∞≈⊥+≈⊇ †+ ≤∞≈†+∋∞+≈’ ≈∞∞⊇≈ ∋≈⊇ ≈+∋+∞ †;≈∂≈ †+ =;⊇∞+≈ †++∋ 64†=.

3;†+ ∋ ≈∞+≈≤+;⊥†;+≈ †∞∋†∞+∞ †++ ∞≈∞+≈ ∋≈⊇ ∋∋≈+ †;≈∂≈ †+ ≈;†∞≈ ;≈≈;⊇∞ ∋≈⊇ +∞†≈;⊇∞ 64, ;† ;≈ ≈+ ≈;∋⊥†∞ +†+⊥ ∋≈⊇ †+∞≈, ;≈ ∋ ≈∞≠ ≈†+∋†∞⊥+ †++ 64 ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ⊇∞=∞†+⊥ †+∞;+ ∞≠†∞+≈∋† ∋≈⊇ ∋†≈+ ;≈†∞+≈∋† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 50)

9≠∋∋⊥†∞≈ †++ ⊥++=;⊇∞+≈ +† +†+⊥≈ ∋+∞ 3†+⊥⊥∞+, 3†+⊥⊥;≈⊥, 5∋+++! 360°[3], ++ 7;=∞1+∞+≈∋†. 0≈∞+≈ ≤∋≈ ≈∞† ∞⊥ +†+⊥≈ ≠;†+;≈ ∋ †∞≠ ∋;≈∞†∞≈. 7++≈∞ ≈∞+=;≤∞≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈∞∋††+ †++ †+∞∞, ≠+∞+∞∋≈ ∋⊇=∞+†;≈;≈⊥ ∋++∞≈⊇ ∋ +†+⊥ +∋≈ †+ +∞ ∋≤≤∞⊥†∞⊇. 3+∋∞ ⊥++=;⊇∞+≈, ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ 7+⊥∞⊥∋⊇, ++≈† †+∞∞ +†+⊥≈ +≈†+ †++ ∋ †;∋;†∞⊇ ⊥∞+;+⊇ +† †;∋∞. (8∋⊥∞∋∋≈≈, &∋∋⊥; 2+≈≈, 2007, ⊥. 52)

2.2.3.&≈+≈⊥;&≈+≈⊥; 4;≤++-+†+⊥⊥;≈⊥

4;≤++-+†+⊥⊥;≈⊥ ;≈ ∋ +∞≤∞≈† ∞≠†∞≈≈;+≈ +† +†+⊥⊥;≈⊥ ∋≈⊇ ≈+≤;∋† ≈∞†≠++∂≈ ∋≈⊇ +∞≈≤∞ ∋ ≈∞≠ †++∋ +† ≤+∋∋∞≈;≤∋†;+≈. 3;†+ ;†≈ ∋+∋∞≈†∞∋ ;≈ 2008 ∋;≤++-+†+⊥⊥;≈⊥ +∋≈ ⊥∋;≈∞⊇ +;⊥+ ;∋⊥++†∋≈≤∞ ∞≈⊥∞≤;∋††+ ;≈ ++⊇∞+ †+ ∞≠⊥+∞≈≈ +≈∞≈ +⊥;≈;+≈. 1≈≈†∞∋⊇ +† ≠++†∞ ∋+†;≤†∞≈ ∋;≤++-+†+⊥⊥∞+≈ ∋+∞ +≈†+ ∋+†∞ †+ ⊥∞+†;≈+ ≈∋∋†† ≈†∋†∞∋∞≈†≈ ++ †∞≠† ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞≈, ≠+;≤+ ∋+∞ +††∞≈ †;∋;†∞⊇ †+ ∋ ≈⊥∞≤;†;≤ ≈∞∋+∞+ +† ≤+∋+∋≤†∞+≈. (0≈†∞++∞;≤+;≈≤+∞ 4∂∋⊇∞∋;∞ ⊇∞+ 3;≈≈∞≈≈≤+∋††, 2011) 4;≤++-+†+⊥≈ ∋+∞ ∞≈∞∋††+ ∋≈≈≠∞+≈ †+ ⊥∞∞≈†;+≈≈ ≈∞≤+ ∋≈ “3+∋† ∋+∞ ++∞ ⊇+;≈⊥?” ++ “3+∋† ;≈ +∋⊥⊥∞≈;≈⊥?” ∋≈⊇ ≤∋≈ +∞ ≤+∋⊥∋+∞⊇ †+ †∞≠† ∋∞≈≈∋⊥∞≈, ⊇∞∞ †+ †+∞ †;∋;†∞⊇ .....

Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention: (Hass, Killian, & Walsh, 2008, pp
Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention: (Hagemann, & Voss, 2007, p
Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention: Another way to use Twitter is for company internal communication which can hence increase employee
Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention: Many social networks also offer the possibility of uploading photos and videos, and are thus, no
Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention: A collaboration of all the tags used by different users for an object is called folksonomy
Applicability of Web 2.0 tools for customer retention: Hence, the following research questions were answered in this chapter:

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