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Kettemann 2011

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American Culture, History, Society: History of Immigration

Since the foundation of Jamestown (1607) well over 45 million people immigrated to America, (not all of these stayed, but probably, more than 38 mill. did)

DATES:

1607 Jamestown

1607- 1830s: Colonial & New Republic Era: pre-mass immigration; British Isles (ca. 80%),

Spanish, French, Dutch, German; 1630-1790 under l mio immigrants (1850-1930: net imm. 2-6

mio per decade)

1775 American Revolution

1787 Comtitution

1830s-1880s Old Immigration; first mass immigration; North & West European groups (2/3 of

total): English, German, Dutch, French, Irish, Scandinavian

1860 Civil War

1880s-1920s New Immigration (South & East European groups: Italians, Austrian-Hungarians,

Poles, Eastern European Jews)

starting in the same period, but mostly around 1920 regulation & restriction of immigration

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act (Suspension of entry of Chinese for 10 years, all foreign born

Chinese ineligible to citizenship)

1885 Foran Act: prohibition of recruitation of unskilled labor by prepaid passage and advance

contracting

1888 supplemental to that, deportation regulations

1891       First Health Qualification Law (people with dangerous diseases, polygamists excluded;
steamship companies have to take unacceptable passengers back)

1892       - 1932 Ellis Island (1932-54 detention center, 1965 reopened äs museum) assembly-line
style (before: Castle Garden, volunteers)


1902       Chinese Exclusion Law renewed indefinitely
1901 Pres. William McKinley assassinated by anarchist

1903       anarchists, Saboteurs, epileptics and Professional beggars excluded

1907/8 "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan (Japan controls emigration, Japanese pupils

integrated)

1910 Dillingham report (manipulated data to show that S&E Europeans inferior)

1914-1918 WWI around WWI internal black migration

1917 Immigration Act: literacy test; no laborers from "Asiatic Barred Zone" (e.g. India,

Indochina, Arabia); little effect: 1921 800 000 imm)

1921        Quota Act (Johnson Act): limitation of the annual number of immigrants from each country
(3% ofthat nations people living in the US in 1910); not Western Hemisphere; preferences
within quotas (relatives); some non-quota (nurses, professors, singers, since 1924 wives &
.....[read full text]

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1965-> Contemporary Immigration (people from Mexico, Central & South America, Asia, West Indies

1965 Hart-Geller Act ("first reopening of Immigration dpors"; took effect in 1968. abolished national origins quota System & designation of Asia-Pacific Triangle; total 290 000; Western Hemisphers 120 000, Eastern 170 000 (20 000 per cpuntry); plus non-quota; preferential treatment (families, particular skills); effects: rising immigration from countries which had low quotas before (e.g. China, India, Greece, Portugal).

1976 Western Hemisphere Act: now also preferential treatment for Western Hemisphere. Effect of Hart-Celler Act:

1920-60:___ 1975 2002 *

Europe 60% 19% 7%

South America 35% 43% 40%

Asia 3% 34% 30%

(*) Source: Office of Immigration Statistics. 2009

-> Immigration doubled between 1965 and 1970, and doubled again between 1970 and 1990


GENDER & AGE:

before 1930 predominance of males, after 1930 of females; throughout immigrants predominantly

young.

For most of the 19th Century males 60% of total, age group 15-39 2/3 of total

New Immigration: males 67% of total, age group 15-39 3/4 of total

US POLICY:

1.         1609 - 1775: Colonial (British) Laws

2.    1776 - 1881: Open Door Phase

3.         1882 - 1916: Phase of Regulation

4.    1917 - 1964: Phase of Restriction

5.         1965 - : Liberalization

PATTERNS:

reasons: economic differences between emigration country and US, economic development (industrialization in US, development of market economy in country of emigration) & population growth, religious, political, catastrophic events (e.g. Irish famine)

People emigrate(d) when they came into contact with Capitalism/Market Economy (first in N-Europe, therefore they left first; therefore also within each wave subwaves: first middle & lower middle class, i.e. artisans, peddlers, etc. because first affected by change in economy, later mostly general labor, domestic Service, independent & semi-independent farmers; the poorest usually cou.....

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Much of this rethinking challenges concepts that are framed by trajectories of evolutionary development within the boundaries of the nation-state. Instead, newer work attends to contradiction, relationality, and back-and-forth dynamics and strives to undo conceptual binaries, theorize liminal positions, and resituate the border as a contact zone.

These studies rethink immigrant agency and resistance by connecting material conditions to subject-formation processes, while also emphasizing multiple, interlocking inequalities at various scales.“

Immigration in the U.S.A

“Landmarks in Immigration History”

Joe R. Feagin & Clairece Booher Feagin (2003), Racial and Ethnic Relations; Pearson Education (London)

3 Phases (p.50)

I) Commercial Capitalism and the Slave Society: Early 1600s – 1860s

II) Industrial Capitalism: 1860s – 1910s

III) Advanced Industrial (Multinational) Capitalism


Mauk & Oakland (2005), American Civilization – An Introduction, Routledge:


Key terms:


Founder vs

immigrant

established

adjusted

nativism

Dislike of people and things foreign

first wave 1680 – 1776

Conform to Anglo-Am culture; needed labour;

250.000 Scots-Irish;

140.000 Afr.Slaves;

200.000 Germans

80.000 Engl. Poor & convicts

third wave: 1890-1930,

new immigrants

In 24y same as many immigrants than ‛old immigr.”

Largest groups: Italians, Jews, Poles, Hungarians, Mexicans

old immigrants

Europeans, 15,5 Mill people came to USA, supplying markets for labourers;


middle colonies

NY, NJ, Pennsylvania

stage migration

Moving to a city, then to a foreign country


northern colonies

Plymouth, MA, 1620

second wave: 1820-90

Germans, Irish, Britons, Scandinavian, French, Canadians, Chinese, Dutch

melting pot

Crevecoeur (1782) “individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of man”

indigenous people



push and pull factors

Basic economic factors


forth wave

Change brought with 1965 law; shift from Europe to central/south America and Asia,



pluralism


Immigration figures and graphs:

* Projections and graph courtesy Population Environment Balance,
Sources: US Census Bureau; Statistical Yearbook, Immigration and Naturalization Service

global trends:

klkl

Population figures and graphs

african immigrants














Larsen, Luke J. 2004. The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2003. Current Population Reports, P20-551, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, D.C.:

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